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Adopts Without Amendments:

International Building Code 2018 (IBC 2018)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
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About this chapter: Chapter 7 provides detailed requirements for fire-resistance-rated construction, including structural members, walls, partitions and horizontal assemblies. Other portions of the code describe where certain fire-resistance-rated elements are required. This chapter specifies how these elements are constructed, how openings in walls and partitions are protected and how penetrations of such elements are protected.
The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, systems and assemblies used for structural fire resistance and fire-resistance-rated construction separation of adjacent spaces to safeguard against the spread of fire and smoke within a building and the spread of fire to or from buildings.
Fire assemblies that serve multiple purposes in a building shall comply with all of the requirements that are applicable for each of the individual fire assemblies.
Materials prescribed herein for fire resistance shall conform to the requirements of this chapter.
The fire-resistance rating of building elements, components or assemblies shall be determined in accordance with the test procedures set forth in ASTM E119 or UL 263 or in accordance with Section 703.3. The fire-resistance rating of penetrations and fire-resistant joint systems shall be determined in accordance Sections 714 and 715, respectively.
Interior walls and partitions of nonsymmetrical construction shall be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with ASTM E119 or UL 263. Where evidence is furnished to show that the wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, the wall need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side (see Section 705.5 for exterior walls).
Combustible aggregates are permitted in gypsum and Portland cement concrete mixtures for fire-resistance-rated construction. Any component material or admixture is permitted in assemblies if the resulting tested assembly meets the fire-resistance test requirements of this code.
Fire-resistance-rated assemblies tested under ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall not be considered to be restrained unless evidence satisfactory to the building official is furnished by the registered design professional showing that the construction qualifies for a restrained classification in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263. Restrained construction shall be identified on the construction documents.
Where materials, systems or devices that have not been tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly are incorporated into the building element, component or assembly, sufficient data shall be made available to the building official to show that the required fire-resistance rating is not reduced.
In determining the fire-resistance rating of exterior bearing walls, compliance with the ASTM E119 or UL 263 criteria for unexposed surface temperature rise and ignition of cotton waste due to passage of flame or gases is required only for a period of time corresponding to the required fire-resistance rating of an exterior nonbearing wall with the same fire separation distance, and in a building of the same group. Where the fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with this exception exceeds the fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263, the fire exposure time period, water pressure and application duration criteria for the hose stream test of ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall be based on the fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with this section.
The application of any of the methods listed in this section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance criteria specified in ASTM E119 or UL 263. The required fire resistance of a building element, component or assembly shall be permitted to be established by any of the following methods or procedures:
  1. Fire-resistance designs documented in approved sources.
  2. Prescriptive designs of fire-resistance-rated building elements, components or assemblies as prescribed in Section 721.
  3. Calculations in accordance with Section 722.
  4. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of building element, component or assemblies designs having fire-resistance ratings as determined by the test procedures set forth in ASTM E119 or UL 263.
  5. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 104.11.
  6. Fire-resistance designs certified by an approved agency.
Under the prescriptive fire-resistance requirements of this code, the fire-resistance rating of a building element, component or assembly shall be established without the use of automatic sprinklers or any other fire suppression system being incorporated as part of the assembly tested in accordance with the fire exposure, procedures and acceptance criteria specified in ASTM E119 or UL 263. However, this section shall not prohibit or limit the duties and powers of the building official allowed by Sections 104.10 and 104.11.
The tests indicated in Sections 703.5.1 and 703.5.2 shall serve as criteria for acceptance of building materials as set forth in Sections 602.2, 602.3 and 602.4 in Types I, II, III and IV construction. The term "noncombustible" does not apply to the flame spread characteristics of interior finish or trim materials. A material shall not be classified as a noncombustible building construction material if it is subject to an increase in combustibility or flame spread beyond the limitations herein established through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions.
Materials required to be noncombustible shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E136.
Materials having a structural base of noncombustible material as determined in accordance with Section 703.5.1 with a surfacing not more than 0.125 inch (3.18 mm) thick that has a flame spread index not greater than 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723 shall be acceptable as noncombustible materials.
Fire-resistance-rated glazing, when tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 and complying with the requirements of Section 707, shall be permitted. Fire-resistance-rated glazing shall bear a label marked in accordance with Table 716.1(1) issued by an agency and shall be permanently identified on the glazing.
Where there is an accessible concealed floor, floor-ceiling or attic space, fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions or any other wall required to have protected openings or penetrations shall be effectively and permanently identified with signs or stenciling in the concealed space. Such identification shall:
  1. Be located within 15 feet (4572 mm) of the end of each wall and at intervals not exceeding 30 feet (9144 mm) measured horizontally along the wall or partition.
  2. Include lettering not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height with a minimum 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) stroke in a contrasting color incorporating the suggested wording, "FIRE AND/OR SMOKE BARRIER—PROTECT ALL OPENINGS," or other wording.
The fire-resistance ratings of structural members and assemblies shall comply with this section and the requirements for the type of construction as specified in Table 601. The fire-resistance ratings shall be not less than the ratings required for the fire-resistance-rated assemblies supported by the structural members.
Exception: Fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and horizontal assemblies as provided in Sections 707.5, 708.4, 709.4 and 711.2, respectively.
Where columns are required to have protection to achieve a fire-resistance rating, the entire column shall be provided individual encasement protection by protecting it on all sides for the full column height, including connections to other structural members, with materials having the required fire-resistance rating. Where the column extends through a ceiling, the encasement protection shall be continuous from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below through the ceiling space to the top of the column.
Exception: Columns that meet the limitations of Section 704.4.1.
Members of the primary structural frame other than columns that are required to have protection to achieve a fire-resistance rating and support more than two floors or one floor and roof, or support a load-bearing wall or a nonload-bearing wall more than two stories high, shall be provided individual encasement protection by protecting them on all sides for the full length, including connections to other structural members, with materials having the required fire-resistance rating.
Exception: Individual encasement protection on all sides shall be permitted on all exposed sides provided that the extent of protection is in accordance with the required fire-resistance rating, as determined in Section 703.
Secondary members that are required to have protection to achieve a fire-resistance rating shall be protected by individual encasement protection.
Studs, columns and boundary elements that are integral elements in walls of light-frame construction and are located entirely between the top and bottom plates or tracks shall be permitted to have required fire-resistance ratings provided by the membrane protection provided for the wall.
Horizontal assemblies are permitted to be protected with a membrane or ceiling where the membrane or ceiling provides the required fire-resistance rating and is installed in accordance with Section 711.
The required thickness and construction of fire-resistance-rated assemblies enclosing trusses shall be based on the results of full-scale tests or combinations of tests on truss components or on approved calculations based on such tests that satisfactorily demonstrate that the assembly has the required fire resistance.
The edges of lugs, brackets, rivets and bolt heads attached to structural members shall be permitted to extend to within 1 inch (25 mm) of the surface of the fire protection.
Thickness of protection for concrete or masonry reinforcement shall be measured to the outside of the reinforcement except that stirrups and spiral reinforcement ties are permitted to project not more than 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) into the protection.
Pipes, wires, conduits, ducts or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the required fire protective covering of a structural member that is required to be individually encased.
Where the fire protective covering of a structural member is subject to impact damage from moving vehicles, the handling of merchandise or other activity, the fire protective covering shall be protected by corner guards or by a substantial jacket of metal or other noncombustible material to a height adequate to provide full protection, but not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor.
Exception: Corner protection is not required on concrete columns in parking garages.
Load-bearing structural members located within the exterior walls or on the outside of a building or structure shall be provided with the highest fire-resistance rating as determined in accordance with the following:
  1. As required by Table 601 for the type of building element based on the type of construction of the building.
  2. As required by Table 601 for exterior bearing walls based on the type of construction.
  3. As required by Table 602 for exterior walls based on the fire separation distance.
Fire protection is not required at the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates, spanning not more than 6 feet 4 inches (1931 mm) whether part of the primary structural frame or not, and from the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates not part of the structural frame, regardless of span.
Fire-resistance ratings for the isolation system shall meet the fire-resistance rating required for the columns, walls or other structural elements in which the isolation system is installed in accordance with Table 601. Isolation systems required to have a fire-resistance rating shall be protected with approved materials or construction assemblies designed to provide the same degree of fire resistance as the structural element in which the system is installed when tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 (see Section 703.2).
Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units shall be capable of retarding the transfer of heat to the isolator unit in such a manner that the required gravity load-carrying capacity of the isolator unit will not be impaired after exposure to the standard time-temperature curve fire test prescribed in ASTM E119 or UL 263 for a duration not less than that required for the fire-resistance rating of the structure element in which the system is installed.
Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units shall be suitably designed and securely installed so as not to dislodge, loosen, sustain damage or otherwise impair its ability to accommodate the seismic movements for which the isolator unit is designed and to maintain its integrity for the purpose of providing the required fire-resistance protection.
Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM) shall comply with Sections 704.13.1 through 704.13.5.
The application of SFRM shall be consistent with the fire-resistance rating and the listing, including, but not limited to, minimum thickness and dry density of the applied SFRM, method of application, substrate surface conditions and the use of bonding adhesives, sealants, reinforcing or other materials.
The application of SFRM shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. The instructions shall include, but are not limited to, substrate temperatures and surface conditions and SFRM handling, storage, mixing, conveyance, method of application, curing and ventilation.
The SFRM shall be applied to a substrate in compliance with Sections 704.13.3.1 and 704.13.3.2.
Substrates to receive SFRM shall be free of dirt, oil, grease, release agents, loose scale and any other condition that prevents adhesion. The substrates shall be free of primers, paints and encapsulants other than those fire tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing agency. Primed, painted or encapsulated steel shall be allowed, provided that testing has demonstrated that required adhesion is maintained.
Where the SFRM is to be applied over primers, paints or encapsulants other than those specified in the listing, the material shall be field tested in accordance with ASTM E736. Where testing of the SFRM with primers, paints or encapsulants demonstrates that required adhesion is maintained, SFRM shall be permitted to be applied to primed, painted or encapsulated wide flange steel shapes in accordance with the following conditions:
  1. The beam flange width does not exceed 12 inches (305 mm); or
  2. The column flange width does not exceed 16 inches (400 mm); or
  3. The beam or column web depth does not exceed 16 inches (400 mm).
  4. The average and minimum bond strength values shall be determined based on not fewer than five bond tests conducted in accordance with ASTM E736. Bond tests conducted in accordance with ASTM E736 shall indicate an average bond strength of not less than 80 percent and an individual bond strength of not less than 50 percent, when compared to the bond strength of the SFRM as applied to clean uncoated 1/8-inch-thick (3.2 mm) steel plate.
A minimum ambient and substrate temperature of 40°F (4.44°C) shall be maintained during and for not fewer than 24 hours after the application of the SFRM, unless the manufacturer's instructions allow otherwise.
The finished condition of SFRM applied to structural members or assemblies shall not, upon complete drying or curing, exhibit cracks, voids, spalls, delamination or any exposure of the substrate. Surface irregularities of SFRM shall be deemed acceptable.
Exterior walls shall comply with this section.
Cornices, eave overhangs, exterior balconies and similar projections extending beyond the exterior wall shall conform to the requirements of this section and Section 1405. Exterior egress balconies and exterior exit stairways and ramps shall comply with Sections 1021 and 1027, respectively. Projections shall not extend any closer to the line used to determine the fire separation distance than shown in Table 705.2.
Exception: Buildings on the same lot and considered as portions of one building in accordance with Section 705.3 are not required to comply with this section for projections between the buildings.

TABLE 705.2
MINIMUM DISTANCE OF PROJECTION
FIRE SEPARATION
DISTANCE-FSD (feet)
MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM LINE
USED TO DETERMINE FSD
0 to less than 2 Projections not permitted
2 to less than 3 24 inches
3 to less than 5 24 inches plus 8 inches for every foot
of FSD beyond 3 feet or fraction
thereof
5 or greater 40 inches

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Projections from walls of Type I or II construction shall be of noncombustible materials or combustible materials as allowed by Sections 705.2.3.1 and 705.2.4.
Projections from walls of Type III, IV or V construction shall be of any approved material.
Combustible projections extending to within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the line used to determine the fire separation distance shall be of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction, heavy timber construction, complying with Section 2304.11, fire-retardant-treated wood or as permitted by Section 705.2.3.1.
Exception: Type VB construction shall be allowed for combustible projections in Group R-3 and U occupancies with a fire separation distance greater than or equal to 5 feet (1524 mm).
Balconies and similar projections of combustible construction other than fire-retardant-treated wood shall be fire-resistance rated where required by Table 601 for floor construction or shall be of heavy timber construction in accordance with Section 2304.11. The aggregate length of the projections shall not exceed 50 percent of the building's perimeter on each floor.
Exceptions:
  1. On buildings of Types I and II construction, three stories or less above grade plane, fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permitted for balconies, porches, decks and exterior stairways not used as required exits.
  2. Untreated wood and plastic composites that comply with ASTM D7032 and Section 2612 are permitted for pickets, rails and similar guard components that are limited to 42 inches (1067 mm) in height.
  3. Balconies and similar projections on buildings of Types III, IV and V construction shall be permitted to be of Type V construction and shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating where sprinkler protection is extended to these areas.
  4. Where sprinkler protection is extended to the balcony areas, the aggregate length of the balcony on each floor shall not be limited.
Bay and oriel windows constructed of combustible materials shall conform to the type of construction required for the building to which they are attached.
Exception: Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permitted on buildings three stories or less above grade plane of Type I, II, III or IV construction.
For the purposes of determining the required wall and opening protection, projections and roof-covering requirements, buildings on the same lot shall be assumed to have an imaginary line between them.
Where a new building is to be erected on the same lot as an existing building, the location of the assumed imaginary line with relation to the existing building shall be such that the exterior wall and opening protection of the existing building meet the criteria as set forth in Sections 705.5 and 705.8.
Exceptions:
  1. Two or more buildings on the same lot shall be either regulated as separate buildings or shall be considered as portions of one building if the aggregate area of such buildings is within the limits specified in Chapter 5 for a single building. Where the buildings contain different occupancy groups or are of different types of construction, the area shall be that allowed for the most restrictive occupancy or construction.
  2. Where an S-2 parking garage of Construction Type I or IIA is erected on the same lot as a Group R-2 building, and there is no fire separation distance between these buildings, then the adjoining exterior walls between the buildings are permitted to have occupant use openings in accordance with Section 706.8. However, opening protectives in such openings shall only be required in the exterior wall of the S-2 parking garage, not in the exterior wall openings in the R-2 building, and these opening protectives in the exterior wall of the S-2 parking garage shall be not less than 11/2-hour fire protection rating.
Exterior walls shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.
Exterior walls shall be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 and 602 and this section. The required fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation distance of greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be rated for exposure to fire from the inside. The required fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation distance of less than or equal to 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be rated for exposure to fire from both sides.
Exterior walls shall extend to the height required by Section 705.11. Interior structural elements that brace the exterior wall but that are not located within the plane of the exterior wall shall have the minimum fire-resistance rating required in Table 601 for that structural element. Structural elements that brace the exterior wall but are located outside of the exterior wall or within the plane of the exterior wall shall have the minimum fire-resistance rating required in Tables 601 and 602 for the exterior wall.
Where protected openings are not limited by Section 705.8, the limitation on the rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls as required by ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall not apply. Where protected openings are limited by Section 705.8, the limitation on the rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls as required by ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall not apply provided that a correction is made for radiation from the unexposed exterior wall surface in accordance with the following formula:
(Equation 7-1)
where:
Ae = Equivalent area of protected openings.
A = Actual area of protected openings.
Af = Area of exterior wall surface in the story under consideration exclusive of openings, on which the temperature limitations of ASTM E119 or UL 263 for walls are exceeded.
Feo = An "equivalent opening factor" derived from Figure 705.7 based on the average temperature of the unexposed wall surface and the fire-resistance rating of the wall.
For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32] / 1.8.
FIGURE 705.7
EQUIVALENT OPENING FACTOR

705.8 Openings

Diagram
Openings in exterior walls shall comply with Sections 705.8.1 through 705.8.6.

TABLE 705.8
MAXIMUM AREA OF EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS BASED ON
FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE AND DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTION
FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet)DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTIONALLOWABLE AREAa
0 to less than 3b, c, kUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)Not Permittedk
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)iNot Permittedk
Protected (P)Not Permittedk
3 to less than 5d, eUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)Not Permitted
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i15%
Protected (P)15%
5 to less than 10e, f, jUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)10%h
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i25%
Protected (P)25%
10 to less than 15e, f, g, jUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)15%h
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i45%
Protected (P)45%
15 to less than 20f, g, jUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)25%
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i75%
Protected (P)75%
20 to less than 25f, g, jUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)45%
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)iNo Limit
Protected (P)No Limit
25 to less than 30f, g, jUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)70%
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)iNo Limit
Protected (P)No Limit
30 or greaterUnprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS)No Limit
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)iNo Limit
Protected (P)No Limit
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

UP, NS = Unprotected openings in buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

UP, S = Unprotected openings in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

P = Openings protected with an opening protective assembly in accordance with Section 705.8.2.
  1. Values indicated are the percentage of the area of the exterior wall, per story.
  2. For the requirements for fire walls of buildings with differing heights, see Section 706.6.1.
  3. For openings in a fire wall for buildings on the same lot, see Section 706.8.
  4. The maximum percentage of unprotected and protected openings shall be 25 percent for Group R-3 occupancies.
  5. Unprotected openings shall not be permitted for openings with a fire separation distance of less than 15 feet for Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies.
  6. The area of unprotected and protected openings shall not be limited for Group R-3 occupancies, with a fire separation distance of 5 feet or greater.
  7. The area of openings in an open parking structure with a fire separation distance of 10 feet or greater shall not be limited.
  8. Includes buildings accessory to Group R-3.
  9. Not applicable to Group H-1, H-2 and H-3 occupancies.
  10. The area of openings in a building containing only a Group U occupancy private garage or carport with a fire separation distance of 5 feet or greater shall not be limited.
  11. For openings between S-2 parking garage and Group R-2 building, see Section 705.3, Exception 2.
The maximum area of unprotected and protected openings permitted in an exterior wall in any story of a building shall not exceed the percentages specified in Table 705.8 based on the fire separation distance of each individual story.
Exceptions:
  1. In other than Group H occupancies, unlimited unprotected openings are permitted in the first story above grade plane where the wall faces one of the following:
    1. A street and has a fire separation distance of more than 15 feet (4572 mm).
    2. An unoccupied space. The unoccupied space shall be on the same lot or dedicated for public use, shall be not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) in width and shall have access from a street by a posted fire lane in accordance with the International Fire Code.
  2. Buildings whose exterior bearing walls, exterior nonbearing walls and exterior primary structural frame are not required to be fire-resistance rated shall be permitted to have unlimited unprotected openings.
Where openings are required to be protected, opening protectives shall comply with Section 716.
Exception: Opening protectives are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the exterior openings are protected by a water curtain using automatic sprinklers approved for that use.
Where unprotected openings are permitted, windows and doors shall be constructed of any approved materials. Glazing shall conform to the requirements of Chapters 24 and 26.
Where both unprotected and protected openings are located in the exterior wall in any story of a building, the total area of openings shall be determined in accordance with the following:
(Equation 7-2)
where:
Ap = Actual area of protected openings, or the equivalent area of protected openings, Ae (see Section 705.7).
ap = Allowable area of protected openings.
Au = Actual area of unprotected openings.
au = Allowable area of unprotected openings.
Openings in exterior walls in adjacent stories shall be separated vertically to protect against fire spread on the exterior of the buildings where the openings are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of each other horizontally and the opening in the lower story is not a protected opening with a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. Such openings shall be separated vertically not less than 3 feet (914 mm) by spandrel girders, exterior walls or other similar assemblies that have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, rated for exposure to fire from both sides, or by flame barriers that extend horizontally not less than 30 inches (762 mm) beyond the exterior wall. Flame barriers shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. The unexposed surface temperature limitations specified in ASTM E119 or UL 263 shall not apply to the flame barriers unless otherwise required by the provisions of this code.
Exceptions:
  1. This section shall not apply to buildings that are three stories or less above grade plane.
  2. This section shall not apply to buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  3. Open parking garages.
For buildings on the same lot, opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour shall be provided in every opening that is less than 15 feet (4572 mm) vertically above the roof of an adjacent building or structure based on assuming an imaginary line between them. The opening protectives are required where the fire separation distances from the imaginary line to each building or structure are less than 15 feet (4572 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. Opening protectives are not required where the roof assembly of the adjacent building or structure has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from the exterior wall facing the imaginary line and the entire length and span of the supporting elements for the fire-resistance-rated roof assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
  2. Buildings on the same lot and considered as portions of one building in accordance with Section 705.3 are not required to comply with Section 705.8.6.
Joints made in or between exterior walls required by this section to have a fire-resistance rating shall comply with Section 715.
Exception: Joints in exterior walls that are permitted to have unprotected openings.
The void created at the intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 715.4.
Penetrations by air ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exterior walls required to have protected openings shall comply with Section 717.
Exception: Foundation vents installed in accordance with this code are permitted.

705.11 Parapets

Diagram
Parapets shall be provided on exterior walls of buildings.
Exceptions: A parapet need not be provided on an exterior wall where any of the following conditions exist:
  1. The wall is not required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Table 602 because of fire separation distance.
  2. The building has an area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) on any floor.
  3. Walls that terminate at roofs of not less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or where the roof, including the deck or slab and supporting construction, is constructed entirely of noncombustible materials.
  4. One-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior walls that terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab, provided that:
    1. Where the roof/ceiling framing elements are parallel to the walls, such framing and elements supporting such framing shall not be of less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a width of 4 feet (1220 mm) for Groups R and U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupancies, measured from the interior side of the wall.
    2. Where roof/ceiling framing elements are not parallel to the wall, the entire span of such framing and elements supporting such framing shall not be of less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.
    3. Openings in the roof shall not be located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the 1-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior wall for Groups R and U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupancies, measured from the interior side of the wall.
    4. The entire building shall be provided with not less than a Class B roof covering.
  5. In Groups R-2 and R-3 where the entire building is provided with a Class C roof covering, the exterior wall shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing or deck in Types III, IV and V construction, provided that one or both of the following criteria is met:
    1. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of approved noncombustible materials or of fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 feet (1220 mm).
    2. The roof is protected with 0.625-inch (16 mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, supported by not less than nominal 2-inch (51 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members for a minimum distance of 4 feet (1220 mm).
  6. Where the wall is permitted to have not less than 25 percent of the exterior wall areas containing unprotected openings based on fire separation distance as determined in accordance with Section 705.8.
Parapets shall have the same fire-resistance rating as that required for the supporting wall, and on any side adjacent to a roof surface, shall have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches (457 mm), including counterflashing and coping materials. The height of the parapet shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the point where the roof surface and the wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at a slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same height as any portion of the roof within a fire separation distance where protection of wall openings is required, but the height shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm).

Section 706 Fire Walls

Diagram
Fire walls shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 706.2 through 706.11. The extent and location of such fire walls shall provide a complete separation. Where a fire wall separates occupancies that are required to be separated by a fire barrier wall, the most restrictive requirements of each separation shall apply.
Any wall located on a lot line between adjacent buildings, which is used or adapted for joint service between the two buildings, shall be constructed as a fire wall in accordance with Section 706. Party walls shall be constructed without openings and shall create separate buildings.
Exceptions:
  1. Openings in a party wall separating an anchor building and a mall shall be in accordance with Section 402.4.2.2.1.
  2. Fire walls are not required on lot lines dividing a building for ownership purposes where the aggregate height and area of the portions of the building located on both sides of the lot line do not exceed the maximum height and area requirements of this code. For the code official's review and approval, he or she shall be provided with copies of dedicated access easements and contractual agreements that permit the owners of portions of the building located on either side of the lot line access to the other side for purposes of maintaining fire and life safety systems necessary for the operation of the building.
Fire walls shall be designed and constructed to allow collapse of the structure on either side without collapse of the wall under fire conditions. Fire walls designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 221 shall be deemed to comply with this section.
Exception: In Seismic Design Categories D through F, where double fire walls are used in accordance with NFPA 221, floor and roof sheathing not exceeding 3/4 inch (19.05 mm) thickness shall be permitted to be continuous through the wall assemblies of light frame construction.
Fire walls shall be of any approved noncombustible materials.
Exception: Buildings of Type V construction.
Fire walls shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Table 706.4.

TABLE 706.4
FIRE WALL FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS
GROUP FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
A, B, E, H-4, I, R-1, R-2, U 3a
F-1, H-3b, H-5, M, S-1 3
H-1, H-2 4b
F-2, S-2, R-3, R-4 2
  1. In Type II or V construction, walls shall be permitted to have a 2-hour fire-resistance rating.
  2. For Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 buildings, also see Sections 415.7 and 415.8.
Fire walls shall be continuous from exterior wall to exterior wall and shall extend not less than 18 inches (457 mm) beyond the exterior surface of exterior walls.
Exceptions:
  1. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of combustible exterior sheathing or siding provided that the exterior wall has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour for a horizontal distance of not less than 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.
  2. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing, exterior siding or other noncombustible exterior finishes provided that the sheathing, siding or other exterior noncombustible finish extends a horizontal distance of not less than 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall.
  3. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing where the building on each side of the fire wall is protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
Where the fire wall intersects exterior walls, the fire-resistance rating and opening protection of the exterior walls shall comply with one of the following:
  1. The exterior walls on both sides of the fire wall shall have a 1-hour fire-resistance rating with 3/4-hour protection where opening protection is required by Section 705.8. The fire-resistance rating of the exterior wall shall extend not less than 4 feet (1220 mm) on each side of the intersection of the fire wall to exterior wall. Exterior wall intersections at fire walls that form an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3.14 rad) do not need exterior wall protection.
  2. Buildings or spaces on both sides of the intersecting fire wall shall assume to have an imaginary lot line at the fire wall and extending beyond the exterior of the fire wall. The location of the assumed line in relation to the exterior walls and the fire wall shall be such that the exterior wall and opening protection meet the requirements set forth in Sections 705.5 and 705.8. Such protection is not required for exterior walls terminating at fire walls that form an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3.14 rad).
Fire walls shall extend to the outer edge of horizontal projecting elements such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees and similar projections that are within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall.
Exceptions:
  1. Horizontal projecting elements without concealed spaces, provided that the exterior wall behind and below the projecting element has not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance not less than the depth of the projecting element on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.
  2. Noncombustible horizontal projecting elements with concealed spaces, provided that a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall extends through the concealed space. The projecting element shall be separated from the building by not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance on each side of the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting element. The wall is not required to extend under the projecting element where the building exterior wall is not less than 1-hour fire-resistance rated for a distance on each side of the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting element. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.
  3. For combustible horizontal projecting elements with concealed spaces, the fire wall need only extend through the concealed space to the outer edges of the projecting elements. The exterior wall behind and below the projecting element shall be of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance not less than the depth of the projecting elements on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.
Fire walls shall extend from the foundation to a termination point not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above both adjacent roofs.
Exceptions:
  1. Stepped buildings in accordance with Section 706.6.1.
  2. Two-hour fire-resistance-rated walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab, provided that:
    1. The lower roof assembly within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the wall has not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating and the entire length and span of supporting elements for the rated roof assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
    2. Openings in the roof shall not be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall.
    3. Each building shall be provided with not less than a Class B roof covering.
  3. Walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of noncombustible roof sheathing, deck or slabs where both buildings are provided with not less than a Class B roof covering. Openings in the roof shall not be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall.
  4. In buildings of Types III, IV and V construction, walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of combustible roof sheathing or decks, provided that all of the following requirements are met:
    1. Roof openings are not less than 4 feet (1220 mm) from the fire wall.
    2. The roof is covered with a minimum Class B roof covering.
    3. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the wall or the roof is protected with 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, supported by not less than 2-inch (51 mm) nominal ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members for a distance of not less than 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall.
  5. In buildings designed in accordance with Section 510.2, fire walls located above the 3-hour horizontal assembly required by Section 510.2, Item 1 shall be permitted to extend from the top of this horizontal assembly.
  6. Buildings with sloped roofs in accordance with Section 706.6.2.
Where a fire wall serves as an exterior wall for a building and separates buildings having different roof levels, such wall shall terminate at a point not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof level, provided the exterior wall for a height of 15 feet (4572 mm) above the lower roof is not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction from both sides with openings protected by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.
Exception: Where the fire wall terminates at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the lower roof, provided that:
  1. The lower roof assembly within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the wall has not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating and the entire length and span of supporting elements for the rated roof assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
  2. Openings in the lower roof shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the fire wall.
Where a fire wall serves as an interior wall for a building, and the roof on one side or both sides of the fire wall slopes toward the fire wall at a slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12), the fire wall shall extend to a height equal to the height of the roof located 4 feet (1219 mm) from the fire wall plus 30 inches (762 mm). The extension of the fire wall shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm).
Adjacent combustible members entering into a concrete or masonry fire wall from opposite sides shall not have less than a 4-inch (102 mm) distance between embedded ends. Where combustible members frame into hollow walls or walls of hollow units, hollow spaces shall be solidly filled for the full thickness of the wall and for a distance not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above, below and between the structural members, with noncombustible materials approved for fireblocking.

706.8 Openings

Diagram
Each opening through a fire wall shall be protected in accordance with Section 716 and shall not exceed 156 square feet (15 m2). The aggregate width of openings at any floor level shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the wall.
Exceptions:
  1. Openings are not permitted in party walls constructed in accordance with Section 706.1.1.
  2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) where both buildings are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Penetrations of fire walls shall comply with Section 714.
Joints made in or between fire walls shall comply with Section 715.
Ducts and air transfer openings shall not penetrate fire walls.
Exception: Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings of fire walls that are not on a lot line shall be allowed provided that the penetrations comply with Section 717. The size and aggregate width of all openings shall not exceed the limitations of Section 706.8.

Section 707 Fire Barriers

Diagram
Fire barriers installed as required elsewhere in this code or the International Fire Code shall comply with this section.
Fire barriers shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.
The fire-resistance rating of fire barriers shall comply with this section.
The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier separating building areas from a shaft shall comply with Section 713.4.
The fire-resistance rating of the separation between building areas connected by a horizontal exit shall comply with Section 1026.1.
The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier separating atriums shall comply with Section 404.6.
The fire barrier separating incidental uses from other spaces in the building shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table 509.
Fire barriers separating control areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required in Section 414.2.4.
Where the provisions of Section 508.4 are applicable, the fire barrier separating mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table 508.4 based on the occupancies being separated.
The fire barriers, fire walls or horizontal assemblies, or combination thereof, separating a single occupancy into different fire areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table 707.3.10. The fire barriers, fire walls or horizontal assemblies, or combination thereof, separating fire areas of mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than the highest value indicated in Table 707.3.10 for the occupancies under consideration.

TABLE 707.3.10
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR
FIRE BARRIERS, FIRE WALLS OR HORIZONTAL
ASSEMBLIES BETWEEN FIRE AREAS
OCCUPANCY GROUP FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
(hours)
H-1, H-2 4
F-1, H-3, S-1 3
A, B, E, F-2, H-4, H-5, I, M, R, S-2 2
U 1
Where exterior walls serve as a part of a required fire-resistance-rated shaft or stairway or ramp enclosure, or separation, such walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls and the fire-resistance-rated enclosure or separation requirements shall not apply.
Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 1021 for exterior egress balconies, Section 1023.7 for interior exit stairways and ramps and Section 1027.6 for exterior exit stairways and ramp.
Fire barriers shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above and shall be securely attached thereto. Such fire barriers shall be continuous through concealed space, such as the space above a suspended ceiling. Joints and voids at intersections shall comply with Sections 707.8 and 707.9
Exceptions:
  1. Shaft enclosures shall be permitted to terminate at a top enclosure complying with Section 713.12.
  2. Interior exit stairway and ramp enclosures required by Section 1023 and exit access stairway and ramp enclosures required by Section 1019 shall be permitted to terminate at a top enclosure complying with Section 713.12.
The supporting construction for a fire barrier shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier supported. Hollow vertical spaces within a fire barrier shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section 718.2 at every floor level.
Exceptions:
  1. The maximum required fire-resistance rating for assemblies supporting fire barriers separating tank storage as provided for in Section 415.9.1.2 shall be 2 hours, but not less than required by Table 601 for the building construction type.
  2. Supporting construction for 1-hour fire barriers required by Table 509 in buildings of Types IIB, IIIB and VB construction is not required to be fire-resistance rated unless required by other sections of this code.

707.6 Openings

Diagram
Openings in a fire barrier shall be protected in accordance with Section 716. Openings shall be limited to a maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall, and the maximum area of any single opening shall not exceed 156 square feet (15 m2). Openings in enclosures for exit access stairways and ramps, interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways shall also comply with Sections 1019, 1023.4 and 1024.5, respectively.
Exceptions:
  1. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) where adjoining floor areas are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall where the opening protective is a fire door serving enclosures for exit access stairways and ramps, and interior exit stairways and ramps.
  3. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall where the opening protective has been tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 and has a minimum fire-resistance rating not less than the fire-resistance rating of the wall.
  4. Fire window assemblies permitted in atrium separation walls shall not be limited to a maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall.
  5. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall where the opening protective is a fire door assembly in a fire barrier separating an enclosure for exit access stairways and ramps, and interior exit stairways and ramps from an exit passageway in accordance with Section 1023.3.1.
Penetrations of fire barriers shall comply with Section 714.
Penetrations into enclosures for exit access stairways and ramps, interior exit stairways and ramps, and exit passageways shall be allowed only where permitted by Sections 1019, 1023.5 and 1024.6, respectively.

707.8 Joints

Diagram
Joints made in or between fire barriers, and joints made at the intersection of fire barriers with underside of a fire-resistance-rated floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above, and the exterior vertical wall intersection shall comply with Section 715.
The voids created at the intersection of a fire barrier and a nonfire-resistance-rated roof assembly or a nonfire-resistance-rated exterior wall assembly shall be filled. An approved material or system shall be used to fill the void, and shall be securely installed in or on the intersection for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to accommodate expected building movements and to retard the passage of fire and hot gases.
Penetrations in a fire barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 717.
The following wall assemblies shall comply with this section.
  1. Separation walls as required by Section 420.2 for Group I-1 and Group R occupancies.
  2. Walls separating tenant spaces in covered and open mall buildings as required by Section 402.4.2.1.
  3. Corridor walls as required by Section 1020.1.
  4. Enclosed elevator lobby separation as required by Section 3006.2.
  5. Egress balconies as required by Section 1021.2
The walls shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.

708.3 Fire-Resistance Rating

Diagram
Fire partitions shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
Exceptions:
  1. Corridor walls permitted to have a 1/2-hour fire-resistance rating by Table 1020.1.
  2. Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in buildings of Types IIB, IIIB and VB construction shall have fire-resistance ratings of not less than 1/2 hour in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Fire partitions shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below and be securely attached to one of the following:
  1. The underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above.
  2. The underside of a floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly having a fire-resistance rating that is not less than the fire-resistance rating of the fire partition.
Exceptions:
  1. Fire partitions shall not be required to extend into a crawl space below where the floor above the crawl space has a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating.
  2. Fire partitions serving as a corridor wall shall not be required to extend above the lower membrane of a corridor ceiling provided that the corridor ceiling membrane is equivalent to corridor wall membrane, and either of the following conditions is met:
    1. The room-side membrane of the corridor wall extends to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab of a fire-resistance-rated floor or roof above.
    2. The building is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, including automatic sprinklers installed in the space between the top of the fire partition and underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above.
  3. Fire partitions serving as a corridor wall shall be permitted to terminate at the upper membrane of the corridor ceiling assembly where the corridor ceiling is constructed as required for the corridor wall.
  4. Fire partitions separating tenant spaces in a covered or open mall building complying with Section 402.4.2.1 shall not be required to extend above the underside of a ceiling. Such ceiling shall not be required to be part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly, and the attic or space above the ceiling at tenant separation walls shall not be required to be subdivided by fire partitions.
The supporting construction for a fire partition shall have a fire-resistance rating that is equal to or greater than the required fire-resistance rating of the supported fire partition.
Exception: In buildings of Types IIB, IIIB and VB construction, the supporting construction requirement shall not apply to fire partitions separating tenant spaces in covered and open mall buildings, fire partitions separating dwelling units, fire partitions separating sleeping units and fire partitions serving as corridor walls.
In combustible construction where fire partitions do not extend to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above, the space above and along the line of the fire partition shall be provided with one of the following:
  1. Fireblocking up to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above using materials complying with Section 718.2.1.
  2. Draftstopping up to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above using materials complying with Section 718.3.1 for floors or Section 718.4.1 for attics.
Exceptions:
  1. Buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, or in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 provided that protection is provided in the space between the top of the fire partition and underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above as required for systems complying with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Where corridor walls provide a sleeping unit or dwelling unit separation, draftstopping shall only be required above one of the corridor walls.
  3. In Group R-2 occupancies with fewer than four dwelling units, fireblocking and draftstopping shall not be required.
  4. In Group R-2 occupancies up to and including four stories in height in buildings not exceeding 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height above grade plane, the attic space shall be subdivided by draftstops into areas not exceeding 3,000 square feet (279 m2) or above every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller.
  5. In Group R-3 occupancies with fewer than three dwelling units, fire-blocking and draftstopping shall not be required in floor assemblies.
Where exterior walls serve as a part of a required fire-resistance-rated separation, such walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls, and the fire-resistance-rated separation requirements shall not apply.
Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 1021.2 for exterior egress balconies, Section 1023.7 for interior exit stairways and ramps and Section 1027.6 for exterior exit stairways and ramps.

708.6 Openings

Diagram
Openings in a fire partition shall be protected in accordance with Section 716.
Penetrations of fire partitions shall comply with Section 714.

708.8 Joints

Diagram
Joints made in or between fire partitions shall comply with Section 715.
Penetrations in a fire partition by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 717.
Vertical and horizontal smoke barriers shall comply with this section.
Smoke barriers shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.
A 1-hour fire-resistance rating is required for smoke barriers.
Exception: Smoke barriers constructed of minimum 0.10-inch-thick (2.5 mm) steel in Group I-3 buildings.
Smoke barriers shall form an effective membrane continuous from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above, including continuity through concealed spaces, such as those found above suspended ceilings, and interstitial structural and mechanical spaces. The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the wall or floor supported in buildings of other than Type IIB, IIIB or VB construction. Smoke barrier walls used to separate smoke compartments shall comply with Section 709.4.1. Smoke-barrier walls used to enclose areas of refuge in accordance with Section 1009.6.4 or to enclose elevator lobbies in accordance with Section 405.4.3, 3007.6.2, or 3008.6.2 shall comply with Section 709.4.2.
Exception: Smoke-barrier walls are not required in interstitial spaces where such spaces are designed and constructed with ceilings or exterior walls that provide resistance to the passage of fire and smoke equivalent to that provided by the smoke-barrier walls.
Smoke-barrier walls used to separate smoke compartments shall form an effective membrane continuous from outside wall to outside wall.
Smoke-barrier walls used to enclose areas of refuge in accordance with Section 1009.6.4, or to enclose elevator lobbies in accordance with Section 405.4.3, 3007.6.2, or 3008.6.2, shall form an effective membrane enclosure that terminates at a fire barrier wall having a level of fire protection rating not less than 1 hour, another smoke barrier wall or an outside wall. A smoke and draft control door assembly as specified in Section 716.2.2.1.1 shall not be required at each elevator hoistway door opening or at each exit doorway between an area of refuge and the exit enclosure.
Openings in a smoke barrier shall be protected in accordance with Section 716.
Exceptions:
  1. In Group I-1, Condition 2, Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where a pair of opposite-swinging doors are installed across a corridor in accordance with Section 709.5.1, the doors shall not be required to be protected in accordance with Section 716. The doors shall be close fitting within operational tolerances, and shall not have a center mullion or undercuts in excess of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm), louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, and astragals or rabbets at meeting edges. Where permitted by the door manufacturer's listing, positive-latching devices are not required. Factory-applied or field-applied protective plates are not required to be labeled.
  2. In Group I-1, Condition 2, Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding doors installed in accordance with Section 1010.1.4.3 and protected in accordance with Section 716.
In Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where doors protecting openings in smoke barriers are installed across a corridor and have hold-open devices, the doors shall be automatic-closing in accordance with Section 716.2.6.6. Such doors shall have a vision panel with fire-protection-rated glazing materials in fire-protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested.
Penetrations of smoke barriers shall comply with Section 714.
Joints made in or between smoke barriers shall comply with Section 715.
Penetrations in a smoke barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 717.
Smoke partitions installed as required elsewhere in the code shall comply with this section.
The walls shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.
Unless required elsewhere in the code, smoke partitions are not required to have a fire-resistance rating.
Smoke partitions shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above or to the underside of the ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed to limit the transfer of smoke.
Openings in smoke partitions shall comply with Sections 710.5.1 and 710.5.2.
Windows in smoke partitions shall be sealed to resist the free passage of smoke or be automatic-closing upon detection of smoke.
Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with Sections 710.5.2.1 through 710.5.2.3.
Doors in smoke partitions shall not include louvers.
Where required elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall meet the requirements for a smoke and draft control door assembly tested in accordance with UL 1784. The air leakage rate of the door assembly shall not exceed 3.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot [0.015424 m3/(s • m2)] of door opening at 0.10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature test and the elevated temperature exposure test. Installation of smoke doors shall be in accordance with NFPA 105.
Smoke and draft control doors complying only with UL 1784 shall be permitted to show the letter "S" on the manufacturer's labeling.
Where required elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall be self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.2.6.6.
The space around penetrating items shall be filled with an approved material to limit the free passage of smoke.
Joints shall be filled with an approved material to limit the free passage of smoke.
The space around a duct penetrating a smoke partition shall be filled with an approved material to limit the free passage of smoke. Air transfer openings in smoke partitions shall be provided with a smoke damper complying with Section 717.3.2.2.
Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper will interfere with the operation of a required smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative protection shall be utilized.
Horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 711.2. Nonfire-resistance-rated floor and roof assemblies shall comply with Section 711.3.
Horizontal assemblies shall comply with Sections 711.2.1 through 711.2.6.
Assemblies shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.
Assemblies shall be continuous without vertical openings, except as permitted by this section and Section 712.

711.2.3 Supporting Construction

The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the horizontal assembly supported.
Exception: In buildings of Type IIB, IIIB or VB construction, the construction supporting the horizontal assembly is not required to be fire-resistance rated at the following:
  1. Horizontal assemblies at the separations of incidental uses as specified by Table 509 provided that the required fire-resistance rating does not exceed 1 hour.
  2. Horizontal assemblies at the separations of dwelling units and sleeping units as required by Section 420.3.
  3. Horizontal assemblies at smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 709.

711.2.4 Fire-Resistance Rating

Diagram
The fire-resistance rating of horizontal assemblies shall comply with Sections 711.2.4.1 through 711.2.4.6 but shall be not less than that required by the building type of construction.
Where the horizontal assembly separates mixed occupancies, the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Section 508.4 based on the occupancies being separated.