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Adopts Without Amendments:

International Building Code 2018 (IBC 2018)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
User note:
About this chapter: Chapter 9 prescribes the minimum requirements for active fire protection equipment systems to perform the functions of detecting a fire, alerting the occupants or fire department of a fire emergency, mass notification, gas detection, controlling smoke and controlling or extinguishing the fire. Generally, the requirements are based on the occupancy, the height and the area of the building, because these are the factors that most affect fire-fighting capabilities and the relative hazard of a specific building or portion thereof. This chapter parallels and is substantially duplicated in Chapter 9 of the International Fire Code®.
The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection and life safety systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation and operation of fire protection systems.
Fire protection systems shall be installed, repaired, operated and maintained in accordance with this code and the International Fire Code.
Any fire protection system for which an exception or reduction to the provisions of this code has been granted shall be considered to be a required system.
Exception: Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed for partial or complete protection provided that such system meets the requirements of this code.
Persons shall not remove or modify any fire protection system installed or maintained under the provisions of this code or the International Fire Code without approval by the building official.
Threads provided for fire department connections to sprinkler systems, standpipes, yard hydrants or any other fire hose connection shall be compatible with the connections used by the local fire department.
Fire protection systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of this code and the International Fire Code. Where required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of the building official. Tests required by this code, the International Fire Code and the standards listed in this code shall be conducted at the expense of the owner or the owner's authorized agent. It shall be unlawful to occupy portions of a structure until the required fire protection systems within that portion of the structure have been tested and approved.
Where required, fire protection systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station.
Exceptions:
  1. A supervising station is not required for automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
  2. Limited area systems in accordance with Section 903.3.8.
Where two or more fire protection or life safety systems are interconnected, the intended response of subordinate fire protection and life safety systems shall be verified when required testing of the initiating system is conducted. In addition, integrated testing shall be performed in accordance with Sections 901.6.2.1 and 901.6.2.2.
For high-rise buildings, integrated testing shall comply with NFPA 4, with an integrated test performed prior to issuance of the certificate of occupancy and at intervals not exceeding 10 years, unless otherwise specified by an integrated system test plan prepared in accordance with NFPA 4. If an equipment failure is detected during integrated testing, a repeat of the integrated test shall not be required, except as necessary to verify operation of fire protection or life safety functions that are initiated by equipment that was repaired or replaced.
Where a fire alarm system is integrated with a smoke control system as outlined in Section 909, integrated testing shall comply with NFPA 4, with an integrated test performed prior to issuance of the certificate of occupancy and at intervals not exceeding 10 years, unless otherwise specified by an integrated system test plan prepared in accordance with NFPA 4. If an equipment failure is detected during integrated testing, a repeat of the integrated test shall not be required, except as necessary to verify operation of fire protection or life safety functions that are initiated by equipment that was repaired or replaced.
Fire alarm systems required by the provisions of Section 907.2 of this code and Sections 907.2 and 907.9 of the International Fire Code shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with Section 907.6.6 of this code.
Exceptions:
  1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.10.
  2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.
  3. Supervisory service is not required for automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings.
Supervision and monitoring of emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems in Group H occupancies shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire walls constructed in accordance with Section 706, fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707, or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or a combination thereof having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10.
Where provided, fire pump rooms and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working room around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with doors and unobstructed passageways large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment.
Automatic sprinkler system risers, fire pumps and controllers shall be provided with ready access. Where located in a fire pump room or automatic sprinkler system riser room, the door shall be permitted to be locked provided that the key is available at all times.
Access doors for automatic sprinkler system riser rooms and fire pump rooms shall be labeled with an approved sign. The lettering shall be in contrasting color to the background. Letters shall have a minimum height of 2 inches (51 mm) with a minimum stroke of 3/8 inch (10 mm).
Automatic sprinkler system riser rooms and fire pump rooms shall be maintained at a temperature of not less than 40°F (4°C). Heating units shall be permanently installed.
Permanently installed artificial illumination shall be provided in the automatic sprinkler system riser rooms and fire pump rooms.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.
Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted instead of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.
Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12.
Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout stories containing Group A-1 occupancies and throughout all stories from the Group A-1 occupancy to and including the levels of exit discharge serving that occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
  4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout stories containing Group A-2 occupancies and throughout all stories from the Group A-2 occupancy to and including the levels of exit discharge serving that occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout stories containing Group A-3 occupancies and throughout all stories from the Group A-3 occupancy to and including the levels of exit discharge serving that occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout stories containing Group A-4 occupancies and throughout all stories from the Group A-4 occupancy to and including the levels of exit discharge serving that occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for all enclosed Group A-5 accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2).
Enclosed spaces under grandstands or bleachers shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 where either of the following exist:
  1. The enclosed area is 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or less and is not constructed in accordance with Section 1029.1.1.1.
  2. The enclosed area exceeds 1,000 square feet (93 m2).
Where an occupied roof has an assembly occupancy with an occupant load exceeding 100 for Group A-2 and 300 for other Group A occupancies, all floors between the occupied roof and the level of exit discharge shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
Exception: Open parking garages of Type I or Type II construction.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided where multiple fire areas of Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancies share exit or exit access components and the combined occupant load of theses fire areas is 300 or more.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor containing an ambulatory care facility where either of the following conditions exist at any time:
  1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation.
  2. One or more care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility.
In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor as well as all floors below where such care is provided, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, the level of exit discharge, and all floors below the level of exit discharge.
Exception: Floors classified as an open parking garage are not required to be sprinklered.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:
  1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area.
  2. The Group E fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
    Exception: In buildings where every classroom has not fewer than one exterior exit door at ground level, an automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area.
  3. The Group E fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group F-1 occupancy used for the manufacture of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area that generate finely divided combustible waste or use finely divided combustible materials.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required by this code for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2.

Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

[F] TABLE 903.2.5.2
GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA
LOCATIONOCCUPANCY HAZARD
CLASSIFICATION
Fabrication areasOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Service corridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms without dispensingOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms with dispensingExtra Hazard Group 2
CorridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.
Exceptions:
  1. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group I-1, Condition 1 facilities.
  2. An automatic sprinkler system is not required where Group I-4 day care facilities are at the level of exit discharge and where every room where care is provided has not fewer than one exterior exit door.
  3. In buildings where Group I-4 day care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be installed on the entire floor where care is provided, all floors between the level of care and the level of exit discharge, and all floors below the level of exit discharge other than areas classified as an open parking garage.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-4, Condition 1 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group R-4, Condition 2 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in care facilities with five or fewer individuals in a single-family dwelling.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
  5. A Group S-1 occupancy used for the storage of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406, as shown:
  1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).
  2. Buildings not more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.
  4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.6 where either of the following conditions exists:
  1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.
    Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
In all occupancies other than Group U, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basements, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m2) and where the story does not comply with the following criteria for exterior wall openings:
  1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1011 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1012. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on not fewer than one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
  2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling not less than 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on not fewer than one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The height of the bottom of the clear opening shall not exceed 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor.
Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Access to such openings shall be provided for the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner such that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, or openings shall be provided on not fewer than two sides of the story.
Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, or where walls, partitions or other obstructions are installed that restrict the application of water from hose streams, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes shall have additional sprinkler heads installed at alternate floors and at the lowest intake. Where a rubbish chute extends through a building more than one floor below the lowest intake, the extension shall have sprinklers installed that are recessed from the drop area of the chute and protected from freezing in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Such sprinklers shall be installed at alternate floors, beginning with the second level below the last intake and ending with the floor above the discharge. Access to sprinklers in chutes shall be provided for servicing.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings that have one or more stories with an occupant load of 30 or more located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, measured to the finished floor.
Exceptions:
  1. Open parking structures.
  2. Occupancies in Group F-2.
Where required by the International Mechanical Code, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying hazardous exhaust or flammable or combustible materials.
Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct systems where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.
In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

[F] TABLE 903.2.11.6
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS
SECTION SUBJECT
402.5, 402.6.2 Covered and open mall buildings
403.3 High-rise buildings
404.3 Atriums
405.3 Underground structures
407.7 Group I-2
410.6 Stages
411.3 Special amusement buildings
412.2.4 Airport traffic control towers
412.3.6, 412.3.6.1, 412.5.6 Aircraft hangars
415.11.11 Group H-5 HPM exhaust ducts
416.5 Flammable finishes
417.4 Drying rooms
419.5 Live/work units
424.3 Children's play structures
428 Buildings containing laboratory suites
507 Unlimited area buildings
509.4 Incidental uses
1029.6.2.3 Smoke-protected assembly seating
IFC Sprinkler system requirements as set forth in Section 903.2.11.6 of the International Fire Code
Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 33 of the International Fire Code.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.8.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2 and 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as applicable.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Sections 903.3.1.1.1 and 903.3.1.1.2.
Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from a room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.
  1. A room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.
  2. A room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, where approved by the fire code official.
  3. Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
  4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.
  5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.
  6. Machine rooms, machinery spaces, control rooms and control spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008.
In Group R occupancies sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms that do not exceed 55 square feet (5 m2) in area and are located within individual dwelling units or sleeping units, provided that walls and ceilings, including the walls and ceilings behind a shower enclosure or tub, are of noncombustible or limited-combustible materials with a 15-minute thermal barrier rating.
Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height in buildings not exceeding 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height above grade plane shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.
The number of stories of Group R occupancies constructed in accordance with Sections 510.2 and 510.4 shall be measured from the horizontal assembly creating separate buildings.
Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units and sleeping units where either of the following conditions exists:
  1. The building is of Type V construction, provided that there is a roof or deck above.
  2. Exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units and sleeping units are constructed in accordance with Section 705.2.3.1, Exception 3.
Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.
Sprinkler protection shall be provided in open-ended corridors and associated exterior stairways and ramps as specified in Section 1027.6, Exception 3.
Attic protection shall be provided as follows:
  1. Attics that are used or intended for living purposes or storage shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system.
  2. Where fuel-fired equipment is installed in an unsprinklered attic, not fewer than one quick-response intermediate temperature sprinkler shall be installed above the equipment.
  3. Where located in a building of Type III, Type IV or Type V construction designed in accordance with Section 510.2 or 510.4, attics not required by Item 1 to have sprinklers shall comply with one of the following if the roof assembly is located more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the lowest level of required fire department vehicle access:
    1. Provide automatic sprinkler system protection.
    2. Construct the attic using noncombustible materials.
    3. Construct the attic using fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.
    4. Fill the attic with noncombustible insulation.
    The height of the roof assembly shall be determined by measuring the distance from the lowest required fire vehicle access road surface adjacent to the building to the eave of the highest pitched roof, the intersection of the highest roof to the exterior wall, or the top of the highest parapet, whichever yields the greatest distance. For the purpose of this measurement, required fire vehicle access roads shall include only those roads that are necessary for compliance with Section 503 of the International Fire Code.
  4. Group R-4, Condition 2 occupancy attics not required by Item 1 to have sprinklers shall comply with one of the following:
    1. Provide automatic sprinkler system protection.
    2. Provide a heat detection system throughout the attic that is arranged to activate the building fire alarm system.
    3. Construct the attic using noncombustible materials.
    4. Construct the attic using fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.
    5. Fill the attic with noncombustible insulation.
Automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- and two-family dwellings; Group R-3; Group R-4, Condition 1; and townhouses shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D.
Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in all of the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:
  1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with this code.
  2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.
  3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I-1 and R occupancies.
  4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.
Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern and shall be in accordance with the applicable automatic sprinkler system standard that is being used. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.
Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.
Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the International Plumbing Code. For connections to public waterworks systems, the water supply test used for design of fire protection systems shall be adjusted to account for seasonal and daily pressure fluctuations based on information from the water supply authority and as approved by the fire code official.
Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.
A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R.
Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.
Fire department connections for automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 912.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with the standards listed in Section 903.3.1 except as provided in Sections 903.3.8.1 through 903.3.8.5.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall not exceed six sprinklers in any single fire area.
Only areas classified by NFPA 13 as Light Hazard or Ordinary Hazard Group 1 shall be permitted to be protected by limited area sprinkler systems.
Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building with an automatic wet standpipe system, sprinklers shall be supplied by the standpipe system. Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building without an automatic wet standpipe system, water shall be permitted to be supplied by the plumbing system provided that the plumbing system is capable of simultaneously supplying domestic and sprinkler demands.
Control valves shall not be installed between the water supply and sprinklers unless the valves are of an approved indicating type that are supervised or secured in the open position.
Hydraulic calculations in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be provided to demonstrate that the available water flow and pressure are adequate to supply all sprinklers installed in any single fire area with discharge densities corresponding to the hazard classification.
Valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.
Exceptions:
  1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
  2. Limited area sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.3.8.
  3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.
  4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.
Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, where approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.
Exceptions:
  1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.
  2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.
An approved audible device, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler waterflow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system.
Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings.
Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code official.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed for automatic sprinkler systems or by other requirements of this code.
Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 of the International Fire Code or Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved.
Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously.
Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible and visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.
Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, all of the following items shall be inspected:
  1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.
  2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.
  3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.
  4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.
  5. Identification of devices with proper designations.
  6. Operating instructions.
Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.
The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.
Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Automatic water mist systems shall be permitted in applications that are consistent with the applicable listing or approvals and shall comply with Sections 904.11.1 through 904.11.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 904.11.1.1 through 904.11.1.4.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 750 and the manufacturer's instructions.
Automatic water mist systems shall be automatically actuated.
Connections to a potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the International Plumbing Code.
Where a secondary water supply is required for an automatic sprinkler system, an automatic water mist system shall be provided with an approved secondary water supply.
Supervision and alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.
Monitoring shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.1.
Alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.2.
Floor control valves shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.
The automatic fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, NFPA 96, its listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows:
  1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.
  2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13.
  3. Automatic water mist systems, NFPA 750.
  4. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.
  5. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.
  6. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.
Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 of the International Mechanical Code.
A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) and not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) or less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.
Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.
The actuation of the fire suppression system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.
Where carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect against all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.
Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide-extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.
Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, indicating-type control valve that is identified. Access to the control valve shall be provided.
Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.
Cooktops and ranges installed in the following occupancies shall be protected in accordance with Section 904.13.1:
  1. In Group I-1 occupancies where domestic cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 420.8.
  2. In Group I-2, Condition 1 occupancies where domestic cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 407.2.6.
  3. In Group R-2 college dormitories where domestic cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 420.10.
Cooktops and ranges shall be protected in accordance with Section 904.13.1.1 or 904.13.1.2.
The domestic recirculating or exterior vented cooking hood provided over the cooktop or range shall be equipped with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with the following:
  1. The automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be of a type recognized for protection of domestic cooking equipment. Preengineered automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 300A and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
  2. Manual actuation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in accordance with Section 904.12.1.
  3. Interconnection of the fuel and electric power supply shall be in accordance with Section 904.12.2.
Cooktops and ranges shall include burners that have been tested and listed to prevent ignition of cooking oil with burners turned on to their maximum heat settings and allowed to operate for 30 minutes.
Aerosol fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Sections 901 and 904.4, NFPA 2010, and in accordance with their listing.
Such devices and appurtenances shall be listed and installed in compliance with manufacturer's instructions.
Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 905.2 through 905.11. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. Fire department connections for standpipe systems shall be in accordance with Section 912.
Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.8. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.
Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.
Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where any of the following conditions exist:
  1. Four or more stories are above or below grade plane.
  2. The floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
  3. The floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.
Exceptions:
  1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  2. Class I standpipes are allowed in Group B and E occupancies.
  3. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
  4. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.
  5. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
  6. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings where occupant-use hose lines will not be utilized by trained personnel or the fire department.
  7. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider either of the following:
    1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less.
    2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.
Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.
Exceptions:
  1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.
  2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings that are not high-rise buildings.
Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the hydraulically most remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed to not exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:
  1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.
  2. At each floor-level landing within interior exit stairways opening directly on the mall.
  3. At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building.
  4. At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.
  5. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.
Stages greater than 1,000 square feet in area (93 m2) shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 11/2-inch and 21/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.
Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.
The 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack.
Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.
Buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 2007.5 of the International Fire Code.
Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36 of the International Fire Code.
Buildings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located.
Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:
  1. In every required interior exit stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each story above and below grade plane. Hose connections shall be located at the main floor landing unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.
    Exception: A single hose connection shall be permitted to be installed in the open corridor or open breezeway between open stairs that are not greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm) apart.
  2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.
    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.
  3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.
    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.
  4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.
  5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of an interior exit stairway with access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1011.12.
  6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.
Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an interior exit stairway shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.
Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an interior exit stairway are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.
In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Class II standpipe hose connections located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose. Class II standpipe hose connections shall be located where they will have ready access.
In Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies having occupant loads exceeding 1,000 persons, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony and on each tier of dressing rooms.
Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.
A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.
Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.
In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment such as standpipes, fire hoses, fire extinguishers or fire department valves shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.
Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.
Exceptions:
  1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.
  2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.
Cabinets shall be unlocked.
Exceptions:
  1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.
  2. Approved locking arrangements.
  3. Group I-3 occupancies.
Dry standpipes shall not be installed.
Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.
Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall be transmitted to the control unit.
Exceptions:
  1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.
  2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.
Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3311.
The fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on the outlets on dry standpipes where the responding fire department carries key wrenches for the removal that are compatible with locking FDC connection caps.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in all of the following locations:
  1. In Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.
    Exceptions:
    1. In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C.
    2. In Group E occupancies. portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each classroom is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 2-A:20-B:C.
  2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) distance of travel from commercial cooking equipment and from domestic cooking equipment in Group I-1; I-2, Condition 1; and R-2 college dormitory occupancies.
  3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.
  4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1 of the International Fire Code.
  5. Where required by the International Fire Code sections indicated in Table 906.1.
  6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.
[F] TABLE 906.1
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE
IFC SECTION SUBJECT
303.5 Asphalt kettles
307.5 Open burning
308.1.3 Open flames—torches
309.4 Powered industrial trucks
2005.2 Aircraft towing vehicles
2005.3 Aircraft welding apparatus
2005.4 Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles
2005.5 Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles
2005.6 Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations
2007.7 Heliports and helistops
2108.4 Dry cleaning plants
2305.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2310.6.4 Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2311.6 Repair garages
2404.4.1 Spray-finishing operations
2405.4.2 Dip-tank operations
2406.4.2 Powder-coating areas
2804.3 Lumberyards/woodworking facilities
2808.8 Recycling facilities
2809.5 Exterior lumber storage
2903.5 Organic-coating areas
3006.3 Industrial ovens
3104.12 Tents and membrane structures
3206.10 High-piled storage
3315.1 Buildings under construction or demolition
3317.3 Roofing operations
3408.2 Tire rebuilding/storage
3504.2.6 Welding and other hot work
3604.4 Marinas
3703.6 Combustible fibers
5703.2.1 Flammable and combustible liquids, general
5704.3.3.1 Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
5704.3.7.5.2 Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids
5705.4.9 Solvent distillation units
5706.2.7 Farms and construction sites—flammable and combustible liquids storage
5706.4.10.1 Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids
5706.5.4.5 Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments—fuel dispensing
5706.6.4 Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids
5906.5.7 Flammable solids
6108.2 LP-gas
Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected and installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 10.
Exceptions:
  1. The distance of travel to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.
  2. In Group I-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.
The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4.

[F] TABLE 906.3(1)
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS
  LIGHT
(Low)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
ORDINARY
(Moderate)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
EXTRA
(High)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
Minimum-rated
single extinguisher
2-Ac 2-A 4-Aa
Maximum floor area
per unit of A
3,000
square feet
1,500
square feet
1,000
square feet
Maximum floor area
for extinguisherb
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
Maximum distance of
travel to extinguisher
75 feet 75 feet 75 feet

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
  1. Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
  2. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.
  3. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.
[F] TABLE 906.3(2)
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25 INCHa
TYPE OF HAZARD BASIC MINIMUM
EXTINGUISHER RATING
MAXIMUM
DISTANCE OF TRAVEL
TO EXTINGUISHERS
(feet)
Light (Low) 5-B 30
10-B 50
Ordinary
(Moderate)
10-B 30
20-B 50
Extra (High) 40-B 30
80-B 50

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.
The minimum sizes and distribution of portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards shall comply with Table 906.3(1).
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking equipment shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent. Cooking equipment involving solid fuels or vegetable or animal oils and fats shall be protected by a Class K-rated portable extinguisher in accordance with Sections 906.1, Item 2, 906.4.1 and 906.4.2 of the International Fire Code, as applicable.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will have ready access and be immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.
Exceptions:
  1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.
  2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided that the staff has keys.
The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.
The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.
This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components.
Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the International Fire Code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.
Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be prepared in accordance with NFPA 72 and submitted for review and approval prior to system installation.
Systems and components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed.
An approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code.

Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or waterflow detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire alarm box shall be installed.
Exceptions:
  1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and supervisory service.
  2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is open to the public.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies where the occupant load due to the assembly occupancy is 300 or more, or where the Group A occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. Group A occupancies not separated from one another in accordance with Section 707.3.10 shall be considered as a single occupancy for the purposes of applying this section. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.
Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.
Stadiums, arenas and grandstands required to caption audible public announcements shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.4.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 500 or more.
  2. The Group B occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
  3. The fire area contains an ambulatory care facility.
Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
Fire areas containing ambulatory care facilities shall be provided with an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system installed within the ambulatory care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies.
Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, provided that the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.
A manual fire alarm system that initiates the occupant notification signal utilizing an emergency voice/alarm communication system meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group E occupancies. Where automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.
Exceptions:
  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or less.
  2. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall not be required in Group E occupancies with occupant loads of 100 or less, provided that activation of the manual fire alarm system initiates an approved occupant notification signal in accordance with Section 907.5.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:
    1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors.
    2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and similar areas are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
    3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
  4. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:
    1. The building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
    2. The emergency voice/alarm communication system will activate on sprinkler waterflow.
    3. Manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group F occupancies where both of the following conditions exist:
  1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in height.
  2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 60, 62 and 63, respectively, of the International Fire Code.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group I occupancies. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1, 907.2.6.2 and 907.2.6.3.3.
Exceptions:
  1. Manual fire alarm boxes in sleeping units of Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all care providers' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided that such manual fire alarm boxes are visible and provided with ready access, and the distances of travel required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.
  2. Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official and staff evacuation responsibilities are included in the fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 of the International Fire Code.
In Group I-1 occupancies, an automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5.
Exceptions:
  1. For Group I-1, Condition 1 occupancies, smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior balconies.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.10.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors in Group I-2, Condition 1 facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.4. Group I-2, Condition 2 occupancies shall be equipped with an automatic smoke detection system as required in Section 407.
Exceptions:
  1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where such units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at the care providers' station attending each unit.
  2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system and automatic smoke detection system installed for alerting staff.
Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, automatic sprinkler system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal that automatically notifies staff.
Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4.2 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted.
Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally open to residents.
Exceptions:
  1. Other approved smoke detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, including, but not limited to, placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective guards listed for the purpose, are allowed where necessary to prevent damage or tampering.
  2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as described in Section 308.
  3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping units with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group M occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons.
  2. The Group M occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
Exceptions:
  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered or open mall buildings complying with Section 402.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
During times that the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box or from a waterflow switch shall not be required to activate the alarm notification appliances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly attended location from which evacuation instructions shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies.
Exceptions:
  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where all of the following conditions are met:
     
    1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
    2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow.
    3. Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units.
Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.10.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.9.1 through 907.2.9.3.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where any of the following conditions apply:
  1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge.
  2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit.
  3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.
Exceptions:
  1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler water flow.
  3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1027.6, Exception 3.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.10.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing in all of the following locations:
  1. Common spaces outside of dwelling units and sleeping units.
  2. Laundry rooms, mechanical equipment rooms and storage rooms.
  3. All interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units.
    Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units and where each sleeping unit or dwelling unit either has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit or a means of egress door opening directly to an exit.
Required smoke alarms in dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing shall be interconnected with the fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.7 and NFPA 72.
Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1:
  1. In sleeping areas.
  2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.
  3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:
  1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.
  2. In each room used for sleeping purposes.
  3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
Smoke alarms shall not be installed in the following locations unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm in a location required by Section 907.2.10.1 or 907.2.10.2:
  1. Ionization smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
  2. Ionization smoke alarms with an alarm-silencing switch shall not be installed less than 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
  3. Photoelectric smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 6 feet (1829 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
Smoke alarms shall be installed not less than 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally from the door or opening of a bathroom that contains a bathtub or shower unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm required by Section 907.2.10.1 or 907.2.10.2.
Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R or I-1 occupancies, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.
In new construction, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery backup shall be connected to an emergency electrical system in accordance with Section 2702. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.
Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup where they are connected to an emergency electrical system that complies with Section 2702.
Smoke detectors listed in accordance with UL 268 and provided as part of the building fire alarm system shall be an acceptable alternative to single- and multiple-station smoke alarms and shall comply with the following:
  1. The fire alarm system shall comply with all applicable requirements in Section 907.
  2. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall initiate alarm notification in the dwelling unit or sleeping unit in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
  3. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall not activate alarm notification appliances outside of the dwelling unit or sleeping unit, provided that a supervisory signal is generated and monitored in accordance with Section 907.6.6.
Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately activate an audible and visible alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.11.2.
The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically do all of the following:
  1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface level.
  2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions.
  3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency.
  4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound that is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.
High-rise buildings shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.1, a fire department communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Exceptions:
  1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sections 412 and 907.2.21.
  2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.
  3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1.
  4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.
  5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415.
  6. In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.
Automatic smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.1.1 and 907.2.12.1.2.
Area smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall activate the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. In addition to smoke detectors required by Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.9, smoke detectors shall be located as follows:
  1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room that is not provided with sprinkler protection.
  2. In each elevator machine room, machinery space, control room and control space and in elevator lobbies.
Duct smoke detectors complying with Section 907.3.1 shall be located as follows:
  1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
  2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.
Where a wired communication system is approved in lieu of an emergency responder radio coverage system in accordance with Section 510 of the International Fire Code, the wired fire department communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 911, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside interior exit stairways. The fire department communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the interior exit stairway.