Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
About this chapter: Chapter 23 sets forth regulations for motor fuel-dispensing stations and repair garages. It addresses both liquid and gaseous motor fuels associated with automotive, marine, aircraft and fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities. The repair garage provisions specifically address hazards associated with the different types of fuel used, including flammable and combustible liquids, hydrogen, LPG, LNG and CNG.
Automotive motor fuel-dispensing facilities, marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities, fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities, aircraft motor-vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages shall be in accordance with this chapter and the International Building Code, International Fuel Gas Code and International Mechanical Code. Such operations shall include both those that are open to the public and private operations.
Electrical wiring and equipment shall be suitable for the locations in which they are installed and shall comply with Section 604, NFPA 30A and NFPA 70.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENING FACILITY.
Dispensing devices shall be located as follows:
- Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from lot lines.
- Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from buildings having combustible exterior wall surfaces or buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or buildings having combustible overhangs.
- Such that all portions of the vehicle being fueled will be on the premises of the motor fuel-dispensing facility.
- Such that the nozzle, where the hose is fully extended, will not reach within 5 feet (1524 mm) of building openings.
- Twenty feet (6096 mm) or more from fixed sources of ignition.
An approved emergency disconnect switch shall be provided at an approved location to stop the transfer of fuel to the fuel dispensers in the event of a fuel spill or other emergency. The emergency disconnect switch for exterior fuel dispensers shall be provided with ready access and shall be located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, the fuel dispensers. For interior fuel-dispensing operations, the emergency disconnect switch shall be provided with ready access and be installed at an approved location. Such devices shall be distinctly labeled as: EMERGENCY FUEL SHUTOFF. Signs shall be provided in approved locations.
The height of the emergency disconnect switch shall be not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) and not more than 48 inches (1219 mm) measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating button.
Attended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 2304.2.1 through 2304.2.5. Attended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall have not less than one qualified attendant on duty while the facility is open for business. The attendant's primary function shall be to supervise, observe and control the dispensing of fuel. The attendant shall prevent the dispensing of fuel into containers that do not comply with Section 2304.4.1, control sources of ignition, give immediate attention to accidental spills or releases, and be prepared to use fire extinguishers.
Approved special-dispensing devices and systems such as, but not limited to, card- or coin-operated and remote-preset types, are allowed at motor fuel-dispensing facilities provided that there is not less than one qualified attendant on duty while the facility is open to the public. Remote preset-type devices shall be set in the "off" position while not in use so that the dispenser cannot be activated without the knowledge of the attendant.
Dispenser operating instructions shall be conspicuously posted in approved locations on every dispenser.
An approved emergency procedures sign, in addition to the signs required by Section 2305.6, shall be posted in a conspicuous location and shall read:
IN CASE OF FIRE, SPILL OR RELEASE
- USE EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF
- REPORT THE ACCIDENT!
FIRE DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE NO.______
FACILITY ADDRESS _____________________
Dispensing equipment used at unsupervised locations shall comply with one of the following:
Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall not be dispensed into a portable container unless such container does not exceed a 6-gallon (22.7 L) capacity, is listed or of approved material and construction, and has a tight closure with a screwed or spring-loaded cover so designed that the contents can be dispensed without spilling. Liquids shall not be dispensed into portable or cargo tanks.
Portable containers shall not be filled while located inside the trunk, passenger compartment or truck bed of a vehicle.
Where liquid delivery to above-ground storage tanks is accomplished by positive-pressure operation, tank vehicles shall be positioned not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from tanks receiving Class I liquids and 15 feet (4572 mm) from tanks receiving Class II and IIIA liquids, measured from the tank to the nearest unloading valve on the tank vehicle.
Delivery of flammable liquids to tanks more than 1,000 gallons (3785 L) in capacity shall be made by means of approved liquid- and vapor-tight connections between the delivery hose and tank fill pipe. Where tanks are equipped with any type of vapor recovery system, all connections required to be made for the safe and proper functioning of the particular vapor recovery process shall be made. Such connections shall be made liquid and vapor tight and remain connected throughout the unloading process. Vapors shall not be discharged at grade level during delivery.
Where maintenance to Class I liquid dispensing devices becomes necessary and such maintenance could allow the accidental release or ignition of liquid, the following precautions shall be taken before such maintenance is begun:
- Only persons knowledgeable in performing the required maintenance shall perform the work.
- Electrical power to the dispensing device and pump serving the dispenser shall be shut off at the main electrical disconnect panel.
- The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, where installed, shall be closed.
- Vehicle traffic and unauthorized persons shall be prevented from coming within 12 feet (3658 mm) of the dispensing device.
Leak detection devices required by Section 2306.7.7.1 shall be checked and tested not less than annually in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications to ensure proper installation and operation.
Smoking and open flames shall be prohibited in areas where fuel is dispensed. The engines of vehicles being fueled shall be shut off during fueling. Electrical equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
Warning signs shall be conspicuously posted within sight of each dispenser in the fuel-dispensing area and shall state the following:
- No smoking.
- Shut off motor.
- Discharge your static electricity before fueling by touching a metal surface away from the nozzle.
- To prevent static charge, do not reenter your vehicle while gasoline is pumping.
- If a fire starts, do not remove nozzle—back away immediately.
- It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense gasoline into unapproved containers.
- No filling of portable containers in or on a motor vehicle. Place container on ground before filling.
Fenced and diked areas surrounding above-ground tanks shall be kept free from vegetation, debris and other material that is not necessary to the proper operation of the tank and piping system.
Weeds, grass, brush, trash and other combustible materials shall be kept not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from fuel-handling equipment.
Accurate daily inventory records shall be maintained and reconciled on underground fuel storage tanks for indication of possible leakage from tanks and piping. The records shall include records for each product showing daily reconciliation between sales, use, receipts and inventory on hand. Where there is more than one system consisting of tanks serving separate pumps or dispensers for a product, the reconciliation shall be ascertained separately for each tank system. A consistent or accidental loss of product shall be immediately reported to the fire code official.
Above-ground tanks for the storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquid fuels are allowed to be located in buildings. Such tanks shall be located in special enclosures complying with Section 2306.2.6, in a liquid storage room or a liquid storage warehouse complying with Chapter 57, or shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085.
Above-ground tanks shall not be used for the storage of Class I, II or III liquid motor fuels, except as provided by this section.
- Above-ground tanks used for outdoor, above-grade storage of Class I liquids shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be in accordance with Chapter 57. Such tanks shall be located in accordance with Table 2306.2.3.
- Above-ground tanks used for outdoor, above-grade storage of Class II or IIIA liquids shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 57. Tank locations shall be in accordance withTable 2306.2.3.
Exception: Other above-ground tanks that comply with Chapter 57 where approved by the fire code official.
- 3. Tanks containing fuels shall not exceed 12,000 gallons (45 420 L) in individual capacity or 48,000 gallons (181 680 L) in aggregate capacity. Installations with the maximum allowable aggregate capacity shall be separated from other such installations by not less than 100 feet (30 480 mm).
- 4. Tanks located at farms, construction projects, or rural areas shall comply with Section 5706.2.
- 5. Above-ground tanks used for outdoor, above-grade storage of Class IIIB liquid motor fuel shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 142 or listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 57. Tank locations shall be in accordance with Table 2306.2.3.
MINIMUM SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ABOVE-GROUND TANKS
|TANK TYPE||INDIVIDUAL TANK|
BUILDING ON SAME
LOT LINE THAT IS
OR CAN BE BUILT
SIDE OF A PUBLIC
NEAREST SIDE OF
ANY PUBLIC WAY
|MINIMUM DISTANCE |
BETWEEN TANKS (feet)
|Less than or equal |
|Greater than 6,000||15||25a, c||25||15||3|
|Tanks in vaults||0—20,000||0b||0||0b||0||Separate compartment |
required for each tank
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
- At fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities, a minimum separation distance is not required.
- Underground vaults shall be located such that they will not be subject to loading from nearby structures, or they shall be designed to accommodate applied loads from existing or future structures that can be built nearby.
- For Class IIIB liquids in protected above-ground tanks, a minimum separation distance is not required.
Above-ground tanks used for storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquid motor fuels are allowed to be installed in vaults located above grade or below grade in accordance with Section 5704.2.8 and shall comply with Sections 2306.2.4.1 and 2306.2.4.2. Tanks in above-grade vaults shall also comply with Table 2306.2.3.
Where approved by the fire code official, portable tanks are allowed to be temporarily used in conjunction with the dispensing of Class I, II or III liquids into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles or motorized equipment on premises not normally open to the public. The approval shall include a definite time limit.
Where installation of tanks in accordance with Section 5704.2.11 is impractical, or because of property or building limitations, tanks for liquid motor fuels are allowed to be installed in buildings in special enclosures in accordance with all of the following:
- The special enclosure shall be liquid tight and vapor tight.
- The special enclosure shall not contain backfill.
- Sides, top and bottom of the special enclosure shall be of reinforced concrete not less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick, with openings for inspection through the top only.
- Tank connections shall be piped or closed such that neither vapors nor liquid can escape into the enclosed space between the special enclosure and any tanks inside the special enclosure.
- Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment can be employed to discharge to the outside any vapors that might accumulate inside the special enclosure should leakage occur.
- Tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids inside a special enclosure shall not exceed 6,000 gallons (22 710 L) in individual capacity or 18,000 gallons (68 130 L) in aggregate capacity.
- Each tank within special enclosures shall be surrounded by a clear space of not less than 3 feet (910 mm) to allow for maintenance and inspection.
Above-ground tanks shall be provided with drainage control or diking in accordance with Chapter 57. Drainage control and diking is not required for listed secondary containment tanks. Secondary containment systems shall be monitored either visually or automatically. Enclosed secondary containment systems shall be provided with emergency venting in accordance with Section 2306.6.2.5.
2306.6 Piping, Valves, Fittings and Ancillary Equipment for Use With Flammable or Combustible Liquids
Piping shall be located such that it is protected from physical damage.
2306.6.2 Piping, Valves, Fittings and Ancillary Equipment for Above-Ground Tanks for Class I, II and III Liquids
The fill pipe for above-ground tanks shall be provided with a means for making a direct connection to the tank vehicle's fuel-delivery hose so that the delivery of fuel is not exposed to the open air during the filling operation. Where any portion of the fill pipe exterior to the tank extends below the level of the top of the tank, a check valve shall be installed in the fill pipe not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from the fill-hose connection.
A spill container having a capacity of not less than 5 gallons (19 L) shall be provided for each fill connection. For tanks with a top fill connection, spill containers shall be noncombustible and shall be fixed to the tank and equipped with a manual drain valve that drains into the primary tank. For tanks with a remote fill connection, a portable spill container is allowed.
Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for underground tanks shall comply with Chapter 57 and NFPA 30A.
Dispensing devices, except those installed on top of a protected above-ground tank that qualifies as vehicle-impact resistant, shall be protected against physical damage by mounting on a concrete island 6 inches (152 mm) or more in height, or shall be protected in accordance with Section 312. Dispensing devices shall be installed and securely fastened to their mounting surface in accordance with the dispenser manufacturer's instructions. Dispensing devices installed indoors shall be located in an approved position where they cannot be struck by an out-of-control vehicle descending a ramp or other slope.
The fire code official is authorized to require additional impact protection in accordance with Section 312 where dispensing devices are located in areas near parking areas, multiple dispensing devices, highway on- and off-ramps, and other areas where there is a higher potential for vehicle impacts.
An approved automatic emergency shutoff valve designed to close in the event of a fire or impact shall be properly installed in the liquid supply line at the base of each dispenser supplied by a remote pump. The valve shall be installed so that the shear groove is flush with or within 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of the top of the concrete dispenser island and there is clearance provided for maintenance purposes around the valve body and operating parts. The valve shall be installed at the liquid supply line inlet of each overhead-type dispenser. Where installed, a vapor return line located inside the dispenser housing shall have a shear section or approved flexible connector for the liquid supply line emergency shutoff valve to function. Emergency shutoff valves shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, tested at the time of initial installation and not less than yearly thereafter in accordance with Section 2305.2.4.
Dispenser hoses for Class I and II liquids shall be equipped with a listed emergency breakaway device designed to retain liquid on both sides of a breakaway point. Such devices shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Where hoses are attached to hose-retrieving mechanisms, the emergency breakaway device shall be located between the hose nozzle and the point of attachment of the hose-retrieval mechanism to the hose.
A listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve with or without a latch-open device shall be provided on island-type dispensers used for dispensing Class I, II or III liquids.
Overhead-type dispensing units shall be provided with a listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve without a latch-open device.
Exception: A listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve with latch-open device is allowed to be used on overhead-type dispensing units where the design of the system is such that the hose nozzle valve will close automatically in the event the valve is released from a fill opening or upon impact with a driveway.
Where dispensing of Class I, II or III liquids is performed, a listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve shall be used incorporating all of the following features:
- The hose nozzle valve shall be equipped with an integral latch-open device.
- Where the flow of product is normally controlled by devices or equipment other than the hose nozzle valve, the hose nozzle valve shall not be capable of being opened unless the delivery hose is pressurized. If pressure to the hose is lost, the nozzle shall close automatically.Exception: Vapor recovery nozzles incorporating insertion interlock devices designed to achieve shutoff on disconnect from the vehicle fill pipe.
- The hose nozzle shall be designed such that the nozzle is retained in the fill pipe during the filling operation.
- The system shall include listed equipment with a feature that causes or requires the closing of the hose nozzle valve before the product flow can be resumed or before the hose nozzle valve can be replaced in its normal position in the dispenser.
Where remote pumps are used to supply fuel dispensers, each pump shall have installed on the discharge side a listed leak detection device that will detect a leak in the piping and dispensers and provide an indication. A leak detection device is not required if the piping from the pump discharge to under the dispenser is above ground and visible.
Remote pumps installed above grade, outside of buildings, shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from lines of adjoining property that can be built on and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from any building opening. Where an outside pump location is impractical, pumps are permitted to be installed inside buildings as provided for dispensers in Section 2301.4 and Chapter 57. Pumps shall be substantially anchored and protected against physical damage.
Dispensing devices incorporating provisions for vapor recovery shall be listed and labeled. Where existing listed or labeled dispensing devices are modified for vapor recovery, such modifications shall be listed by report by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. The listing by report shall contain a description of the component parts used in the modification and recommended method of installation on specific dispensers. Such report shall be made available on request of the fire code official.
Means shall be provided to shut down fuel dispensing in the event the vapor return line becomes blocked.
An acceptable method shall be provided to close off the vapor return line from dispensers when the product is not being dispensed.
Piping in vapor-balance systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5703.6, 5704.2.9 and 5704.2.11. Nonmetallic piping shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Existing and new vent piping shall be in accordance with Sections 5703.6 and 5704.2. Vapor return piping shall be installed in a manner that drains back to the tank, without sags or traps in which liquid can become trapped. If necessary, because of grade, condensate tanks are allowed in vapor return piping. Condensate tanks shall be designed and installed so that they can be drained without opening.
Flexible joints shall be installed in accordance with Section 5703.6.9.
Vapor return lines and vent piping shall be tested in accordance with Section 5703.6.3.
Equipment in vapor-processing systems, including hose nozzle valves, vapor pumps, flame arresters, fire checks or systems for prevention of flame propagation, controls and vapor-processing equipment, shall be individually listed for the intended use in a specified manner.
Vapor-processing equipment shall be located at or above grade. Sources of ignition shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from fuel-transfer areas and not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above tank fill openings and tops of dispenser islands. Vapor-processing units shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the nearest building or lot line of a property that can be built on.
Exception: Where the required distances to buildings, lot lines or fuel-transfer areas cannot be obtained, means shall be provided to protect equipment against fire exposure. Acceptable means shall include but not be limited to either of the following:
Vapor-processing equipment shall be located not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from dispensing devices.
Where a downslope exists toward the location of the vapor-processing unit from a fuel-transfer area, the fire code official is authorized to require additional separation by distance and height.
Dispensers shall be listed in accordance with UL 87A. Hoses, nozzles, breakaway fittings, swivels, flexible connectors or dispenser emergency shutoff valves, vapor recovery systems, leak detection devices and pumps used in alcohol-blended fuel-dispensing systems shall be listed for the specific purpose.
Dispensers shall be used only with the fuels for which they have been listed and that are marked on the product. Field-installed components including hose assemblies, breakaway fittings, swivel connectors and hose nozzle valves shall be provided in accordance with the listing and the marking on the unit.
Equipment shall be maintained and inspected in accordance with Section 2305.2.
Hoses, hose connections, vehicle fuel connections, dispensers, LP-gas pumps and electrical equipment used for LP-gas shall be listed.
The point of transfer for LP-gas dispensing operations shall be separated from buildings and other exposures in accordance with the following:
- Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from buildings where the exterior wall is not part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly having a rating of 1 hour or greater.
- Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from combustible overhangs on buildings, measured from a vertical line dropped from the face of the overhang at a point nearest the point of transfer.
- Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the lot line of property that can be built on.
- Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the centerline of the nearest mainline railroad track.
- Not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from public streets, highways, thoroughfares, sidewalks and driveways.
- Not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from buildings where the exterior wall is part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly having a rating of 1 hour or greater.
LP-gas dispensers and related equipment shall comply with the following provisions.
- Pumps shall be fixed in place and shall be designed to allow control of the flow and to prevent leakage and accidental discharge.
- Dispensing devices installed within 10 feet (3048 mm) of where vehicle traffic occurs shall be protected against physical damage by mounting on a concrete island 6 inches (152 mm) or more in height, or shall be protected in accordance with Section 312.
- Dispensing devices shall be securely fastened to their mounting surface in accordance with the dispenser manufacturer's instructions.
The dispenser system piping shall be protected from uncontrolled discharge in accordance with the following:
- Where mounted on a concrete base, a means shall be provided and installed within 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of the top of the concrete base that will prevent flow from the supply piping in the event that the dispenser is displaced from its mounting.
- A manual shutoff valve and an excess flow-control check valve shall be located in the liquid line between the pump and the dispenser inlet where the dispensing device is installed at a remote location and is not part of a complete storage and dispensing unit mounted on a common base.
- An excess flow-control check valve or an emergency shutoff valve shall be installed in or on the dispenser at the point at which the dispenser hose is connected to the liquid piping.
- A listed automatic-closing type hose nozzle valve with or without a latch-open device shall be provided on island-type dispensers.
Dispenser hoses shall be equipped with a listed emergency breakaway device designed to retain liquid on both sides of the breakaway point. Where hoses are attached to hose-retrieving mechanisms, the emergency breakaway device shall be located such that the breakaway device activates to protect the dispenser from being displaced.
Self-service LP-gas dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted containers providing fuel to the LP-gas powered vehicle.
The requirements for self-service LP-gas dispensing systems shall be in accordance with the following:
- The arrangement and operation of the transfer of product into a vehicle shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 61.
- The system shall be provided with an emergency shutoff switch located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, dispensers.
- The owner of the LP-gas motor fuel-dispensing facility or the owner's designee shall provide for the safe operation of the system and the training of users.
- The dispenser and hose-end valve shall release not more than 1/8 fluid ounce (4 cc) of liquid to the atmosphere upon breaking the connection with the fill valve on the vehicle.
- Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 2305.5.
- Warning signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 2305.6.
- The area around the dispenser shall be maintained in accordance with Section 2305.7.
LP-gas containers shall not be filled with LP-gas in excess of the volume determined using the fixed maximum liquid level gauge installed on the container, the volume determined by the overfilling prevention device installed on the container or the weight determined by the required percentage of the water capacity marked on the container.
Hoses, hose connections, dispensers and electrical equipment used for CNG shall be listed. Vehicle-fueling connections shall be listed and labeled.
Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located above ground, outdoors.
- Compression, storage or dispensing equipment shall be allowed in buildings of noncombustible construction, as set forth in the International Building Code, that are unenclosed for three-quarters or more of the perimeter.
- Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be allowed indoors or in vaults in accordance with Chapter 53.
In addition to the requirements of Section 2303.1, compression, storage and dispensing equipment not located in vaults complying with Chapter 53 shall be installed as follows:
- Not beneath power lines.
- Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from the nearest building or lot line that could be built on, public street, sidewalk or source of ignition.
- Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad track and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad main track or any railroad or transit line where power for train propulsion is provided by an outside electrical source, such as third rail or overhead catenary.
- Fifty feet (15 240 mm) or more from the vertical plane below the nearest overhead wire of a trolley bus line.
Self-service CNG-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on CNG-powered vehicles.
Pressure regulators shall be designed and installed or protected so that their operation will not be affected by the elements (freezing rain, sleet, snow or ice), mud or debris. The protection is allowed to be an integral part of the regulator.
Gas piping to equipment shall be provided with a remote, manual shutoff valve that is provided with ready access.
An emergency shutdown control shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of, but not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, dispensers and shall be provided in the compressor area. Upon activation, the emergency shutdown system shall automatically shut off the power supply to the compressor and close valves between the main gas supply and the compressor and between the storage containers and dispensers.
A documented procedure that explains the logical sequence for discharging the cylinder shall be provided to the fire code official for review and approval. The procedure shall include what actions the operator will take in the event of a low-pressure or high-pressure natural gas release during the discharging activity. A drawing illustrating the arrangement of piping, regulators and equipment settings shall be provided to the fire code official for review and approval. The drawing shall illustrate the piping and regulator arrangement and shall be shown in spatial relation to the location of the compressor, storage vessels and emergency shutdown devices.
A method of rigidly supporting the vessel during the venting of CNG shall be provided. The selected method shall provide not less than two points of support and shall prevent the horizontal and lateral movement of the vessel. The system shall be designed to prevent the movement of the vessel based on the highest gas-release velocity through valve orifices at the vessel's rated pressure and volume. The structure or appurtenance shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.
The structure or appurtenance used for stabilizing the cylinder shall be separated from the site equipment, features and exposures and shall be located in accordance with Table 2308.8.1.2.3.
A vent tube that will divert the gas flow to atmosphere shall be installed on the cylinder prior to commencement of the venting and purging operation. The vent tube shall be constructed of pipe or tubing materials approved for use with CNG in accordance with Chapter 53.
The vent tube shall be capable of dispersing the gas not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above grade level. The vent tube shall not be provided with a rain cap or other feature that would limit or obstruct the gas flow.
Generation, compression, or storage equipment shall be allowed outdoors in accordance with Chapter 58 and NFPA 2.
Gaseous hydrogen systems and detection devices shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Smoking shall be prohibited in hydrogen cutoff rooms. "No Smoking" signs shall be provided at all entrances to hydrogen fuel gas rooms.
Open flames, flame-producing devices and other sources of ignition shall be controlled in accordance with Chapter 58.
Hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall be kept free from combustible debris and storage.
Fuel-dispensing areas under canopies shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required for Extra Hazard Group 2 occupancies. Operation of the sprinkler system shall activate the emergency functions of Sections 2309.3.1.5.3 and 2309.3.1.5.4.
Self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on hydrogen-powered vehicles.
In addition to the requirements in Section 2311, the owner of a self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing facility shall provide for the safe operation of the system through the institution of a fire safety plan submitted in accordance with Section 404, the training of employees and operators who use and maintain the system in accordance with Section 406, and provisions for hazard communication in accordance with Section 407.
The vehicle shall be fueled on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by the methodology specified in EN 1081.
Manual emergency shutoff valves shall be identified and the location shall be clearly visible, accessible and indicated by means of a sign.
In addition to the manual emergency shutoff valve required by Section 2309.5.2, a remotely located, manually activated emergency shutdown control shall be provided. An emergency shutdown control shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of, but not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, dispensers and hydrogen generators.
Activation of the emergency shutdown control shall automatically shut off the power supply to all hydrogen storage, compression and dispensing equipment; shut off natural gas or other fuel supply to the hydrogen generator; and close valves between the main supply and the compressor and between the storage containers and dispensing equipment.
The repair, purging, defueling or discharge activities associated with hydrogen motor fuel supply systems and tanks and the installation of the systems shall be in accordance with Chapters 53 and 58 and NFPA 2.
Exception: The fuel supply piping from the fuel storage tank to the engine compartment on a motor vehicle or forklift.
A documented procedure that explains the logic sequence for defueling or discharging operations shall be maintained on site and shall be provided to the fire code official upon request. The procedure shall include what actions the operator is required to take in the event of a low-pressure or high-pressure hydrogen release during discharging activity. Schematic design documents shall be maintained on site, illustrating the arrangement of piping, regulators and equipment settings. The schematic shall illustrate the piping and regulator arrangement and shall be shown in spatial relation to the location of the vehicle being defueled and, if applicable, to the compressor, storage vessels and emergency shutdown devices.
Class I, II or IIIA liquids stored inside of buildings used for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be stored in approved containers or portable tanks. Storage of Class I liquids shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L).
Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall have an attendant or supervisor who is fully aware of the operation, mechanics and hazards inherent to fueling of boats on duty whenever the facility is open for business. The attendant's primary function shall be to supervise, observe and control the dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids or flammable gases.
Dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids into the fuel tanks of marine craft shall be by means of an approved-type hose equipped with a listed automatic-closing nozzle without a latch-open device.
Fueling of floating marine craft with Class I fuels at other than a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility is prohibited.
Fueling of floating marine craft with Class II or III fuels at other than a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility shall be in accordance with all of the following:
- The premises and operations shall be approved by the fire code official.
- Tank vehicles and fueling operations shall comply with Section 5706.6.
- The dispensing nozzle shall be of the listed automatic-closing type without a latch-open device.
- Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in lighted areas.
- The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation while dispensing.
- Fuel expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank to prevent overflow in the event of temperature increase.
Spills of Class I, II or IIIA liquids at or on the water shall be reported immediately to the fire department and jurisdictional authorities.
Containers with tight-fitting or self-closing lids shall be provided for temporary storage of combustible debris, rubbish and waste material. The rubbish containers shall be constructed entirely of materials that comply with any one of the following:
- Noncombustible materials.
- Materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation.
Construction, maintenance, repair and reconditioning work involving the use of open flames, arcs or spark-producing devices shall not be performed at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the dispensing facilities, including piers, wharves or floats, except for emergency repair work approved in writing by the fire code official. Fueling shall not be conducted at the pier, wharf or float during the course of such emergency repairs.
Smoking or open flames shall be prohibited within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of fueling operations. "No Smoking" signs complying with Section 310 shall be posted conspicuously about the premises. Such signs shall have letters not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height on a background of contrasting color.
Warning signs shall be prominently displayed at the face of each wharf, pier or float at such elevation as to be clearly visible from the decks of marine craft being fueled. Such signs shall have letters not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height on a background of contrasting color bearing the following or approved equivalent wording:
NO SMOKING—STOP ENGINE WHILE FUELING,
SHUT OFF ELECTRICITY
DO NOT START ENGINE UNTIL AFTER BELOW
DECK SPACES ARE VENTILATED.
NO SMOKING—STOP ENGINE WHILE FUELING,
SHUT OFF ELECTRICITY
DO NOT START ENGINE UNTIL AFTER BELOW
DECK SPACES ARE VENTILATED.
Portable fire extinguishers in accordance with Section 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C, shall be provided as follows:
Repair garages shall comply with this section and the International Building Code. Repair garages for vehicles that use more than one type of fuel shall comply with the applicable provisions of this section for each type of fuel used.
Crankcase drainings shall be classified as Class IIIB liquids unless otherwise determined by testing.
Garage floor drains, where provided, shall drain to approved oil separators or traps discharging to a sewer in accordance with the International Plumbing Code. Contents of oil separators, traps and floor drainage systems shall be collected at sufficiently frequent intervals and removed from the premises to prevent oil from being carried into the sewers.
Pits and below-grade work areas shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.
Where Class I liquids or LP-gas are stored or used within a building having a basement or pit wherein flammable vapors could accumulate, the basement or pit shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in accordance with the International Mechanical Code, at a minimum rate of 11/2 cubic feet per minute per square foot (cfm/ft2) [0.008 m3/(s • m2)] to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors.
Vehicles powered by LP-gas and the servicing of vehicles powered by LP-gas shall be in compliance with this chapter, Chapter 61 of this code and NFPA 58.
LNG vehicle fuel system pressure shall be measured and recorded prior to entering the repair facility. The maximum allowable system pressure shall be not more than 170 psig (1172 kPa). Pressure greater than 170 psig (1172 kPa) shall be reduced by operating the vehicle or limited venting outdoors, as required.
CNG vehicle fuel system pressure and the ambient temperature shall be measured and recorded prior to entering the repair facility. Pressure greater than the indicated maximum pressure in accordance with Table 2311.6.2 shall be reduced by defueling the vehicle.
|GAS TEMPERATURE °F||PRESSURE IN FULL 3,600 PSI |
CNG CONTAINER, psig
For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, 1 psig = 6.895 kPa.
- 3,600 psi service pressure calculated from the standard gas composition used to create the gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE).
The room, motor vehicle repair booth or motor vehicle repair space containing repair garage activities for the conversion or repair of vehicles that use CNG, LNG, hydrogen or other lighter-than-air motor fuels shall be in accordance with Sections 2311.8 through 2311.8.11 in addition to the other requirements of Section 2311. Repair garages for the repair of vehicles that use hydrogen fuel shall be in accordance with this code and NFPA 2.
- Repair garages where work is conducted only on vehicles that have been defueled and their systems purged with nitrogen gas, and where standard operating procedures to document and maintain the fueling status throughout repair operations are approved.
- Repair garages where work is not performed on the fuel system and is limited to exchange of parts and maintenance not requiring open flame or welding on the CNG-, LNG-, hydrogen- or other lighter-than-air-fueled motor vehicle.
- Repair garages for hydrogen-fueled vehicles where work is not performed on the hydrogen storage tank and is limited to the exchange of parts and maintenance not requiring open flame or welding on the hydrogen-fueled vehicle. During the work, the entire hydrogen fuel system shall contain less than 200 cubic feet (5.6 m3) of hydrogen.
- Repair garages for natural-gas-fueled vehicles where work is not being performed on the fuel storage tank, and is limited to the exchange of parts and maintenance not requiring open flame or welding on the natural-gas-fueled vehicle. During the work, the natural gas, in the vehicle fuel tank shall contain a pressure of not more than 250 psi at 70°F (1724 kPa at 21°C).
For vehicles powered by gaseous fuels, the fuel shutoff valves shall be closed prior to repairing any portion of the vehicle fuel system.
Motor vehicle repair rooms shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code, or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both, with 1-hour rated opening protectives.
Motor vehicle repair booths shall be constructed of approved noncombustible materials. Where walls or ceiling assemblies are constructed of sheet metal, single-skin assemblies shall be not thinner than 0.0478 inch (18 gage) (1.2 mm) and each sheet of double-skin assemblies shall be not thinner than 0.0359 inch (20 gage) (0.9 mm). Structural sections of motor vehicle repair booths shall be sealed in an approved manner.
The interior surfaces of motor vehicle repair booths shall be constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior.
Motor vehicle repair booths shall be installed so that all parts of the booth be provided with ready access for cleaning. A clear area of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) wide shall be maintained on all sides of the motor vehicle repair booth. This clear area shall be kept free of any storage or combustible construction.
- This requirement shall not prohibit locating a motor vehicle repair booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to or directly against an interior partition, wall or floor/ceiling assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, provided that the motor vehicle repair booth can be adequately maintained and cleaned.
- This requirement shall not prohibit locating a motor vehicle repair booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to an exterior wall or a roof assembly, provided that the wall or roof is constructed of noncombustible material and the motor vehicle repair booth can be adequately maintained and cleaned.
Where such spaces are not separately enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to restrict the spread of flammable gases.
Motor vehicle repair booths or spaces installed in a room or area protected by an automatic sprinkler system shall have the protection extended to include the inside of the motor vehicle repair booth or space.
Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 shall be provided for motor vehicle repair rooms, motor vehicle repair booths or motor vehicle repair spaces.
Repair garages used for the repair of CNG, LNG, or other lighter-than-air motor fuels other than hydrogen shall be provided with an approved mechanical ventilation system. The mechanical exhaust ventilation system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and Sections 23220.127.116.11 and 2318.104.22.168.
For indoor locations, air supply inlets and exhaust outlets for mechanical ventilation shall be arranged to provide uniformly distributed air movement with inlets uniformly arranged on walls near floor level and outlets at the high point of the room in walls or the roof.
The exhaust ventilation rate shall be not less than 1 cubic foot per minute (0.03 m3/minute) per 12 cubic feet (34 m3) of room volume.
- Mechanical exhaust ventilation systems that are interlocked with a gas detection system designed in accordance with Sections 2311.8.9 through 2322.214.171.124.
- Mechanical exhaust ventilation systems in repair garages that are used only for repair of vehicles fueled by liquid fuels or odorized gases, such as CNG, where the ventilation system is electrically interlocked with the lighting circuit.
Repair garages used for repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases including, but not limited to, hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with a gas detection system that complies with Section 916. The gas detection system shall be designed to detect leakage of nonodorized gaseous fuel. Where lubrication or chassis service pits are provided in garages used for repairing nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles, gas sensors shall be provided in such pits.
Activation of the gas detection alarm shall result in all of the following:
Areas within 18 inches (450 mm) of a ceiling within a motor vehicle repair room or motor vehicle repair booth shall be designed and installed in accordance with the requirements for Class I, Division 2 classified locations, as set forth in NFPA 70.
- Rooms with exhaust ventilation of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (0.3 m3/ min/m2) of floor area, with suction taken from a point within 18 inches (450 mm) of the highest point in the ceiling in repair garages for vehicles that use CNG, liquefied natural gas (LNG) or other lighter-than-air motor fuels.
- Rooms used for the repair of hydrogen-fueled vehicles that have an approved exhaust ventilation system in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and NFPA 2.
Facilities for repairing or replacing hydrogen fuel tanks on hydrogen-fueled vehicles shall have equipment to defuel vehicle storage tanks. Where work must be performed on a vehicle's fuel storage tank for the purpose of maintenance, repair or cylinder certification, defueling and purging shall be conducted in accordance with Section 2309.6 and NFPA 2.